Introduction- The houses

Before venturing into the study of the finances of a nation we should be clear about the indications of the houses in the chart.

In deva prasna (i.e. questions bearing on deities, the twelve houses signify (1) Divine presence, (2) wealth, (3) temple servants, (4) vehicles (5) image, idol, picture or symbol like an alter, (6) enemies, (7) ornaments, (8) offerings, oblations of five or sixteen kinds, (9) temple authorities, (10) festivals, (11) income and (12) expenditure. There are other opinions in this regard and the most accepted views have been reconciled and are at table-1

Table 1: House significations

House Deva praśna Rāja praśna
Coronation Rāja bhāgya National chart
1 Deity, well being & satisfaction, temple building and idol, alter, picture etc. The King The King The nation, constitution, ideals
2 Wealth, income, treasure, guardians Treasury Prince & princess Wealth, treasury, currency
3 Temple servants, Offerings (to deity) Armed forces & their chief Treasury Armed forces & their chief, servants
4 Lands, property, vehicles Vehicles, property Vehicles & followers Vehicles, property
5 Divine presence and the symbols, idols, etc. Ministers, advisers Palace Ministers, Officials wielding delegated powers
6 Pollution, enemies, thieves Enemies, thieves Wife(s) Enemies, disease
7 People, worshippers, ornaments War manoeuvre Advisers & preceptors Public
8 Offerings (by people), good or evil Life of government Subjects Donations, aid, life of nation
9 Authorities and merits Policy and attitude Policy and attitude
10 Daily ceremonies, festivals etc. Administration President, Prime minister and Administration
11 Merit, prosperity, income Gains, income Gains, income
12 Expenditure, waste, āchārya, tāntrika, priest Losses, expenditure Losses, expenditure

The nation is alive and full of living beings that constitute its living body. Unfortunately man has evolved so much as to accord an equal status to other living creatures that have accepted his leadership, but it goes without saying that the trees and animals living in the boundaries of a modern nation-state belong to it. The divine presence is represented in the hearts of all creatures and a study of the houses in deva praśna gives us an idea of defining the signification of houses for a modern nation-state.

There can be various dates and times defining the stages of evolution of an area into a nation-state. Of these, the Independence Day marks the birth of the nation. The house significations given in the last column of table-1 shall apply to such a chart.

Every other event following the declaration of independence is a part of the evolutionary process. Of these the most important event is the coronation of a king, oath taking of the chief executive (President or Prime minister) or the declaration of a dictator. The house significations given under the column titled ‘coronation’ shall apply to such charts. Questions bearing on the personal life of the head of state and his functioning should be seen from the column titled ‘Rāja bhāgya’ or fortune of the ruler.

Table 2: Charakāraka & bhāva

House Modern astrologers Parāsara Rath
1 Ātmakāraka Ātmakāraka Ātmakāraka
2 Amātyakāraka Dārākāraka Dārākāraka
3 Bhrātṛkāraka Bhrātṛkāraka Bhrātṛkāraka
4 Mātṛkāraka Mātṛkāraka
5 Putrakāraka Putrakāraka Putrakāraka
6 Jñātikāraka Jñātikāraka
7 Dārākāraka Dārākāraka Dārākāraka
8 Ātmakāraka
9 Pitṛkāraka & Bhrātṛkāraka
10 Amātyakāraka
11 Bhrātṛkāraka Bhrātṛkāraka
12 None

The (1) Sun, (2) Jupiter, (3) Mars, (4) Moon, (5) Jupiter, (6) Mars, (7) Venus, (8) Saturn, (9) Jupiter, (10) Mercury, (11) Jupiter and (12) Saturn are the naisargika kāraka for the twelve houses. Parāśara gives the above list of the primary natural significators. There are other secondary natural significators for some of the houses as given in the classical Jyotiṣa literature. These include Mercury (learning) for the fourth house; Saturn (disease) for the sixth house; Sun (father) for the ninth house; Sun (work), Saturn (effort) & Jupiter (success) for the tenth house.

In this paper we shall examine the finances of a few modern nation states using the houses and the Nārāyaṇa daśā as a tool to accurately time the events. In addition to the above, the regular significations of the houses and planets should be borne in mind while examining the charts.

Chart 1: Indian Independence

India was declared independent on 15 Aug 1947 along with other nations in the Indian subcontinent. Rāhu (foreign influence) is in lagna indicating that the constitution shall be largely borrowed from foreign countries and the modern nation-state shall attempt to imbibe the best from all other nations.

Table 3: Narayana Dasa of India
Ta: 1947-08-15 (0:01:00) – 1949-08-14 (12:25:05)
Sg: 1949-08-14 (12:25:05) – 1959-08-15 (1:44:30)
Cn: 1959-08-15 (1:44:30) – 1971-08-15 (3:38:56)
Aq: 1971-08-15 (3:38:56) – 1978-08-14 (22:34:34)
Vi: 1978-08-14 (22:34:34) – 1980-08-14 (11:00:00)
Ar: 1980-08-14 (11:00:00) – 1982-08-14 (23:17:28)
Sc: 1982-08-14 (23:17:28) – 1989-08-14 (18:17:25)
Ge: 1989-08-14 (18:17:25) – 1990-08-15 (0:22:41)
Cp: 1990-08-15 (0:22:41) – 1996-08-14 (13:23:17)
Le: 1996-08-14 (13:23:17) – 1997-08-14 (19:31:44)
Pi: 1997-08-14 (19:31:44) – 2002-08-15 (2:10:19)
Li: 2002-08-15 (2:10:19) – 2011-08-15 (9:34:50)
Ta: 2011-08-15 (9:34:50) – 2021-08-14 (23:04:25)
Sg: 2021-08-14 (23:04:25) – 2023-08-15 (11:20:14)
Cn: 2023-08-15 (11:20:14) – 2023-08-15 (11:20:14)
Aq: 2023-08-15 (11:20:14) – 2028-08-14 (18:16:25)
Vi: 2028-08-14 (18:16:25) – 2038-08-15 (7:33:10)
Ar: 2038-08-15 (7:33:10) – 2048-08-14 (21:09:25)
Sc: 2048-08-14 (21:09:25) – 2053-08-15 (3:56:42)

Chart 2: USA Independence (144 year)

…other charts were discussed

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There are two methods to draw a Trimsamsa (D30) Chart. We discuss the method of Parashara.

What is the Trimsamsa, and how to draw a Trimsamsa Chart?
Trimsamsa means the one-thirtieth portion of a sign measuring one degree. Unlike other divisions, the Sun and Moon are not the Lords of any trimsamsa and the Nodes (Rahu & Ketu) also do not owm any trimsamsa. Thus the remaining five of Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn own the trimsamsa. They represent the five elemental states of existence (see table 1).

Table 1: Five Elements

Element Planet State Tithi Days
Prithvi Mercury Earth/Solid state Bhadra Tithi: 2nd, 7th & 12th Wednesday
Jala Venus Water/ Liquid state Rikta Tithi: 4th, 9th & 14th Monday & Friday
Agni Mars Fire/Energy Nanda Tithi: 1st, 6th & 11th Tuesday, Sunday
Vayu Saturn Wind/ Gaseous State Poorna Tithi: 5th, 10th & 15th Saturday
Akash Jupiter Ether/ Vacuum Jaya Tithi: 3rd, 8th & 13th Thursday

Table 2: Trimsamsa D30

Degrees Odd Signs Deity Degrees Even Signs Deity
5 Aries Agni 50 Taurus Varuna
10 Aquarius Vayu 120 Virgo Kubera
18 Sagittarius Indra 200 Pisces Indra
25 Gemini Kubera 250 Capricorn Vayu
30 Libra Varuna 300 Scorpio Agni

The positions of the planets and the Lagna in the Rasi chart are used to determine the Trimsamsa occupied by them. For example, if Jupiter is in 26-07′ in Pisces, then since it is in an even sign, from Table 2, we see that it is in Scorpio (even sign ruled by Mars). In this manner, the trimsamsa of all the planets and Lagna is determined and the resultant chart is called the Trimsamsa or D-30 Chart.

The trimsamsa chart of the standard nativity is given below.

How to study the Trimsamsa Chart? Method-1

1. Treat this like any other chart. In spiritualism we are taught of a “SHADOW SELF” called PAPA_PURUSHA which is a reflection of our own self, but the darker side which includes all the negative things we have done for ages and many births. This is the trimsamsa..the shadowy world of our self. Hence, the Sun and Moon do not own any trimsamsa as they have light.
2. Second thing is to study this chart for all the bad things we have done for which we deserve to be punished or taught lessons. The 12th rules hospitals and is the 5th (Mantra) from the 8th (Diseases). Hence the 12th house shows the way to get out of diseases and other such bad karma. It is the future (5th) of the 8th house.
3. A Saturn placed in such a place is not good as it delays the recovery from diseases, makes the effect of the mantra nil due to mistakes or “NOT WORSHIPPING GANESHJI” before starting a mantra can render it useless unless Guru is very strong. In this manner study the houses with focus on the 8th house (ROGA: Diseases & RINA Debts) and the 6th house (SHAD RIPU: Six kinds of weaknesses). In this manner the houses should be studied.
4. The 9th house (Dharma) from the 8th house is the 4th house. Thus, happiness and laughter (ruled by the 4th house) are the best natural medicine to get out of the cycle of disease and debt. A clean heart is the key to happiness & laughter. Venus (fulfilment of desires) gives happiness & Mercury gives laughter. Moon is the natural significator for the 4th house and becomes the Controlling planet for good health and freedom from diseases. In this manner the planets should be studied.
5. The Arudha pada of the sixth house gives the body part that shall be afflicted due to the diseases.
6. Venus rules the Mritunjaya Mantra and the strength of Venus in this division is important for recovery from diseases. The Sun and the Moon represent the Atma (Soul) and the Mana (Mind) respectively. Affliction to the Sun will result in suffering, poverty and misery while affliction to the Moon will cause ill health and death. Since Mars and Venus rules the signs of exaltation of the Sun and Moon, they represent the Physical and Mental strength of the native to cope with distress, disease and other evils respectively.

Examine the trimsamsa of the chart above

The first, tenth and eighth houses and their lords should be examined for good longevity. Here, the Lagna lord is involved with a Parivartana Yoga with the ninth lord Mars showing the ability for quick recovery from diseases. The conjunction of saturn is a big handicap on the lagna lord as if saturn conjoins either of the lords of the lagna (Brahma), tenth (Vishnu) and eighth (Rudra), then the span of longevity contributed by it is reduced. Jupiter is not only the lagna lord, but also the tenth lord and its conjunction by Saturn is a handicap. The exaltation of the eighth lord Venus is a great blessing in the chart as it gives cures from all ailments during its periods.

Rahu and Ketu placed in the eighth house will surely give diseases during their periods and the antidote for this is the exaltation of Venus their dispositor. During Saturn dasa-Rahu Antardasa-Ketu Pratyantar dasa, the native developed a strange swelling in the left elbow (joint diseases are shown by Saturn) that had to be surgically removed after it threatened to become dangerous.

The badhakesh is the lord of the house of obstruction (Badhak means obstruction). For movable signs the eleventh house, for dual signs the seventh and for fixed signs the seventh is the Badhak house. Here the seventh house is Virgo which is empty while its lord Mercury is in the tenth house in Sagittarius in the badhak house from the Moon. Thus, during Jupiter dasa Mercury antardasa, the native suffered from a dogbite.

The lagna rising in trimsamsa is the same as the Lagna Pisces in the Rasi chart showing that most of the ill health will be related to childhood and that the health improves with age. This is also substantiated by the placement of the tenth lord in Lagna with the lagna lord in the Rasi Chart. In this manner and applying the “Paryaya Dasa” [recommended by Maharishi Jaimini for the Shastamsa (D-6) and D-30 is a higher harmonic division of D-6 as 30=2×12+(6)] the correct results can be divined.

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Continued from Ātmakāraka I

Bhagavat Gītā: A few years ago when we were asked about the standard books for studying Jyotisa, the Bhagavat Gītā, Bṛhat Parāśara horā śāstra and Maharṣi Jaimini’s upadeśa sutra were recommended as the foundation. Today we shall explore the teachings of the Gītā to understand creation, the spirit soul and the chara kāraka scheme(s).

Creation, elements & kāraka

Bhagavat Gītā (7-2)
ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते॥ ७-२॥
jñānaṁ te’haṁ savijñānamidaṁ vakṣyāmyaśeṣataḥ |
yajjñātvā neha bhūyo’nyajjñātavyamavaśiṣyate || 7-2||

Prabhupada’s translation: I shall now declare unto you in full this knowledge, both phenomenal and numinous. This being known, nothing further shall remain for you to know.

Jyotisa Commentary

The entire knowledge of creation of this manifested universe, both phenomenal (physical creation) and the spirit being which was handed down by Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna as this is the transcendental knowledge forming the basis of Jyotisa. Both jnānam (knowledge of the gross material creation and dissolution process) and vijnānam (knowledge of the superior creation and existence of the spirit being) are being described, and these are different. This is the vedānta knowing which nothing more shall remain to be known or hidden. Jyotisa in its highest level is the vedānta where the astrologer has risen to the level of a ‘trikālajnāni’.

Bhagavat Gītā (7-4)
भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च।
अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा॥ ७-४॥
bhūmirāpo’nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhireva ca |
ahaṁkāra itīyaṁ me bhinnā prakṛtiraṣṭadhā || 7-4||

Prabhupada’s translation: Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego—all together these eight constitute My separated material energies.

Jyotisa Commentary
The five states of physical existence of all creation are symbolized by

  1. Earth called bhūmi or pṛthvi tattva, solid state: Mercury,
  2. Water called āpa or jala tattva, liquid state: Venus,
  3. Fire called anala or agni tattva, energy state: Mars,
  4. Air called vāyu tattva, gaseous state: Saturn and,
  5. Ether called khaṁ or ākāśa tattva, vacuum: Jupiter

At the gross level these are the pañca bhūta and at the subtle level they are known as the pañca tattva. Thus, every physical creation shall have these five elements in varying proportions that shall define its physical constitution.

The manas is the ‘mind’ of the universe as well as the individual and indicates the class, group or family identifying the created being or object and is represented in astrology by the Moon. Any created material object belongs to a class of objects created with a certain shape (definable for solids with a predominant pṛthvi tattva), having a certain constitution (based on the proportion of the constituent tattva). These define the class or family to which it belongs.

Buddhi refers to the intelligence or body of knowledge related to the object. This defines its purpose of creation and existence and the effects of the various laws of nature on it called its Dharma. The laws of nature that the created body must obey are seen from the ascendant called Lagna and this is the seat of the dharma trikoṇa which includes the fifth & ninth houses. Lagna represents prajāpati, the creator.

Ahaṁkāra refers to its independent identity and is the false ego (not Freud’s ego). This is false because the identity is not permanent and it is an ego as it helps to identify the object and differentiate it from the other bodies/creatures of its class or family. This is represented by the Sun in astrology.

Example 1: Arabian sea

Let us consider the Arabian sea as an example. This has a predominance of liquid in its body as compared to other states of solids and gases. Thus the body has a predominance of jala tattva. The water is in constant motion due to various currents created by the rotation of the earth. This movement is due to energy in the water showing that it possesses agni tattva. It is contained by a basin which is the crust of the earth and this is the dharma (buddhi) associated with it as one of the laws of nature that a liquid does not have any particular shape and takes the shape of the container. The water in the sea displaces a certain volume of air or vacuum and this volume indicates the presence of ākāśa tattva that keeps the waters together within the containing crust of the earth. There are so many similar large water bodies that separate continents and they are all known as ‘sea’. This is the family or class of created bodies to which it belongs and is the manas. However, we are aware that this particular body that touches the west coast of India is different from the water body in the east coast of India and other parts of the world and have named it the “Arabian Sea”. This particular name “Arabian” is its ahaṁkāra that helps to identify it in particular and differentiates it from other seas.

These are the eight primary variables that go into the creation of all bodies, both animate and inanimate. It is evident that we do not need any more variables than the lagna and seven planets from Sun to Saturn to define the physical (material creation). These planets are the seven Chara kāraka that are used in mundane astrology and all such horoscopy of material bodies that cannot procreate.

Bhagavat Gītā (7-5)
अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम्‌।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत्‌॥ ७-५॥
apareyamitastvanyāṁ prakṛtiṁ viddhi me parām |
jīvabhūtāṁ mahābāho yayedaṁ dhāryate jagat || 7-5||

Prabhupada’s translation: Besides these, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature.

Jyotisa Commentary

Besides the material creation, living beings are also created in this universe, which are of a superior energy. These beings are different from the material beings in that they have the ‘jīva’ or ‘jivātma’ which is very much like the paramātma, yet is different from the latter. This jivātma causes the living beings to exercise a higher level of intelligence, some amount of ‘free-will’ (very much bounded – based on the upachaya) and get involved in the process of karma, sin and rebirth. The definitions of karma and sin vary from one class of living beings to another (manas variance) and also varies within the class (ahaṁkāra) based on the level of buddhi (intelligence). For example, sin is not incurred if a lion kills a cow for food, but a lot of sin is incurred if a human being kills a cow. Here the definition of sin based on dharma (natural laws governing) has been in variance due to the class of being differentiated as per the manas. Again, among human beings, the all knowing self-realized priest or brāhmaṇa incurs higher sin by killing a cow than a vaiśya whole knowledge is inferior. Here the definition of sin is more relaxed based on the level of knowledge (buddhi).

Since the primary differential between the quality of the sin is the mana, and since the Moon represents the manas, it is but natural to consider the nodes of the Moon as karmic control planets. Rāhu indicates the sins on account of past karma and those done with full knowledge of consequences while Ketu, in the negative, represents the mistakes made. In the positive Rāhu represents punishment and redemption while Ketu represents suffering and emancipation. As a group they are one, and represent the opposite points of bhoga & mokṣa.

The eight-variable scheme of the previous śloka needs to be modified to the ten-variable scheme that includes the lunar nodes Rāhu (ascending node) and Ketu (descending node) in addition to the lagna and seven planets from the Sun to Saturn. Further, since every living being that has been created has not got mokṣa, it is evident that in any spiritual scheme that must represent the individual jivātma and its interaction with the other ātma, room would have to be made for Rāhu (but must exclude Ketu). These seven planets from the Sun to Saturn, and Rāhu are the eight Chara kāraka that are used in horoscopy (jātaka) and all such charts of living bodies that can procreate.

Bhagavat Gītā (7-6)
एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा॥ ७-६॥
etadyonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇītyupadhāraya |
ahaṁ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayastathā || 7-6||

Prabhupada’s translation: All created beings have their source in these two natures. Of all that is material and all that is spiritual in this world, know for certain that I am both the origin and the dissolution.

Jyotisa Commentary

All created bodies fall into these two categories of animate (living) and inanimate (non-living). One of the methods of differentiation is in their nature of procreation (this will also form the basis of differentiation of the two schemes of chara kāraka). Further, the inanimate bodies do not have a jivātma and are not considered spirit beings or spiritual in that sense.

Conclusion

It is evident from the Bhagavat Gītā that there are separate schemes for the living and non-living world and that these schemes differ on the number of chara karaka due to the concept of sin associated with a certain amount of limited free-will and the presence of the jivātma (individual soul of the living being). The visible differentiation is their ability to procreate which is represented by the siva linga (phallic symbol of siva as Pasupati or the lord of all living beings).

Shiva-Linga pictures
Kārakāṁśa is composed of two words – (1) ‘kāraka’ referring to the ātmakāraka specifically and other Charakāraka (temporal significators) as well and (2) ‘aṁśa’ referring to the navāṁśa and other divisional charts. Kārakāṁśa refers to the navāṁśa (and/or other divisional charts) where the ātmakāraka is placed and such a sign is treated as the kārakāṁśa-lagna or seat of the real self, the soul and the first house for determining all things connected to deep inner desires and creation cause itself.

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Brahma has four heads from which He spoke the four vedas – the Rig Veda, Yaju Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. When the three guna (Satva, Rajas and Tamas) manifest, they do so in a combination such that either one of the three predominates or they are in a confused proportion where neither predominates. This results in four types of ‘Guna manifestation’ as explained by Parasara in his monumental classic Brhat Parasara Hora Shastra.

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“Sama-Saptaka” means mutual seventh and refers to the placement of two ‘otherwise friendly planets’ in mutual one-seventh houses from each other. The placement of two diremalefics in such places is not considered ’sama-saptaka’. For this purpose the planets must have at least ‘SAMA’ relationship in the Graha Maitrya (five types of relationship) table.
I will give two illustrations to explain my point.
(1)The mutual placement of Saturn and Mars in the 1st and 7th houses causes Unmada Yoga or madness.
Thus this position cannot be called Sama-saptaka as the planets are not only natural enemies, but also temporal enemies. What is worse, both are in Marana Karaka Sthana.
(2) The Mutual placement of Jupiter and Mars in the first and seventh house axis resulted in a powerful Guru-Mangala Yoga for Bhagavan Sri Rama and He cannot be defeated in battle. This is taught by Krishna as ‘among warriors, I am Rama’ – Bhagavat Gita.

Mahapurusa yoga
what happens to a human being after he endures suffering? In what direction does the Mahapurusa go? Can we ignore lagna? Look at this statement –
Lakshmi brings Love to the native
Griha Lakshmi gives him all the comforts and security
Dhana Lakshmi gives him the wealth of values that he cherishes
Kanakdhara gives him a stable business or carrer so that the flow of wealth and energy is sustainable
Mahalakshmi gives him victory in war
Vijaya lakshmi gives him victory in debates and legal battles…

Did you notice how the prefix Maha causes a warrior like image. That is what I was always advising that people should think of the panca mahapurusha as the five pandava brothers. See the definition for Kaladruma yoga and here also we find the condition of victory in wars and battles and this is associated with Lagna. To think of the Mahapurusa as the five heads of Lord Shiva is correct in a spiritual context but it fails to appreciate the condition that Shiva told Draupadi – no human being can be born with all the five heads or abilities in its complete form. That is why Draupadi had to have five husbands to fulfill the five mahapurusha requirements/abilities.

‘Kendra-adipati’ dosha of benefics
Now the word ‘Kendra-adipati’ clearly means ‘lordship of quadrant house’ which are defined as 10th, 7th, 4th and 1st in that order of strengths. The four kendra are the four doors of the horoscope through whch good and bad comes into the natives life. The lords of the Kendra are responsible to guard the doors and allow people to enter and exit. This is easily understood from the ‘bhupura’ of any chakra where the four doors are in the kendra/quadrants.

Now if you want to have a guard for the door, what would be the attributes that you will select? A good Pandit who is well versed in the vedas (Jup) or a black belt in Karate (Mars)? Naturally the Pandit will make a mess of things if he is asked to guard the door. He will fail to be strict due to his innate goodness and all sorts of riff-raff will enter into that area of his life thereby exploiting and damaging his life. A malefic planet will be harsh (Mars) strict (Saturn) or suspicious (Rahu) or very fiery (Sun) and will guard the door of his life with superb ability.
That is the meaning of Kendradhipati dosha.

Now what happens if the benefic gets fighting powers and a brahmin who is supposed to read books and Vedas decides to make weapons (take the case of Dronacharya or Albert Einstein or all those scientists who are involved in arms manufacture)…believe me, they will end up making the most destructive weapons in the world. A brahmin must always use his brains for spiritual path and peace. So when the benefic who is the lord of a Kendra also occupies a Kendra which happens to be its own sign or exaltation, then it becomes a ‘Maha’ Graha and has fighting powers, which when invoked can be very harsh.

What happens in real life is that at first the benefic allows all kinds of riff-raff to enter that aspects of his life and this is sure to happen if the lord of the Kendra is placed in a dusthana, especially the 6th house. This is the real meaning of Kendradhipati dosha. If the benefic is instead strong like being vargottama or in its own sign/exaltation in kendra forming a Maha yoga then the native will fight back and depending on stregth of the benefic will succeed or lose. In such a case it is crucial to make the benefic strong with gemstones and worship of the adhi devata or pratyadhi devata etc as per standard methods taught.

The area of life is seen from below –
Lagna – dharma or duties [and reputation in real life, ] 4th house – moksha or [home in real life including personal friends who come home, personal servants at home, etc] 7th house – spouse, people who interact with you for matters of pleasure and entertainment…another group of friends
10th house – all people associated with your work and finances

Souvik’s Questions: Param Guru Sanjay Rathji, Pranam.
Indeed that is such a wonderful explanation. However, I am just left with one (or should I say a few) doubt. This is about Pacha Mahapurusha Yoga when superimposed with Sama Saptaka concept.
I know and definitely understand after listening to each and every class of Atri that Sasa and Ruchaka MahaPurusha? Yoga applies at tamasic levels. However nevertheless we cannot deny them from being two out of five faces of Shiva (this is what I understand).
Under such circumstances would you consider a Libran Asc with Sat in Lagna and Mars in Moolatrikona in 7th. as a mentally ill person?
In one of your Atri classes you have mentioned yourself that Saturn in Bharani is good, Bharani being the nakshtra of Yama. I know of a person heading an organization quite big having Arian Saturn in Lagna and well honestly he is not insane.
The same classics you have mentioned that praise Jup in Kendra also talk about Kendrapati Dosha-Jup and Mer in Kendra for Pis,Sagg,Gemini and Virgo Lagna. How can a same benefic be good and bad in Kendra. Isn’t it true that malefics in Kendra are considered good?
I maybe completely confused or misinterpreting things. Please do clear my ignorance.

Sanjay Rath: That was precisely the point I was trying to make when discussing the meaning of Sama saptaka. According to the standard dictum,Jupiter in lagna and Mars in 7H or vice-versa should cause this while another dictum clearly confirms Saturn in lagna and Mars in 7H.

The point I was trying to make is to understand the Sama nature of the planets involved. In the chart of your sister, Venus is in lagna and degree wise is far more dominant than Saturn. In fact she should be independent, listening to everyone but doing what she feels right, ill health till say 10 years of age (general)…and definitely far from madness. She will actually be a very intelligent person. So you see how the presence of Venus in lagna has made the yoga defunct.

Now you see when Jupiter is in lagna and Mars is in the 7th, should we listen to Atri and Agastya praising this great yoga as the guru- mangala yoga in Sapta Rishi nadi or should I take that unmada yoga combination? What happens to all those other slokas about Guru in lagna and natural benefic like Jup destroying all evils (you have also made this point). So definitely that yoga mentioned is defunct and the yoga will work if Mars is in or aspects lagna and Jupiter is in 5 or 9th house but definitely not when Guru is in Kendra in lagna.

There is a need to review the calendar system used in Vedic astrology and to set the standards for the right calendar to be followed in this regard. There have been various calendar reform committees set up in various forum, yet there has not been any consensus as deep inside they realize that some vital point is being missed out. The calendar being followed by the Indian Government, is widely off the mark as it just blindly superimposes a lunar calendar on a solar calendar! Without trying to harmonise them as had been originally done by the Vedic Seers. The Rashtriya Panchang, although correct in its delineation of the planetary positions, (uses Lahiri’s Ayanamsa, that is the closest to the truth so far) does not address this issue.

Facts

Second- 1/86,400 of a day
Ephemeris Second- 1/31,556,925.9747 of a tropical year
Atomic Second- oscillations of cesium atom= 9,192,631,770
Sidereal Day- 23H 56M 4.09S
Lunar Month- 29.53059 days
Lunar Months in a Solar Year- 12.36827
Sidereal Month (time moon around earth)- 27D 7H 43M 11.5S
Synodical Month (new moon to new moon or full moon to full moon)- 29D 12H 44M 3S = 29.53059D
Tropical Year- 365D 5H 48M 46.43S = 365.2422D
Sidereal Year- 365D 6H 9M 9.5S = 365.2564D
Solar Year- 365.2422 days
Obliquity of the Ecliptic (angle of ecliptic and Celestial Equator)- 23 degrees 27′
Tropics- 23 degrees 27′ (Ant)Arctic- 66 degrees 30′
Canonical Hours: Catholic- prime(one)=6AM, tierce(three)=9AM, sext(six)=Noon, none(nine)=3PM
Saros Period (eclipses repeat)- 18 years 11 1/3 days
Metonic Cycle (aligning Lunar calendar to Saros period)
Sothic Cycle (Sirius’s heliacal rising period)- 1461 years
Julian Cycle (Lunar months, Saros period, etc align)- 7980 years
Precession of the Equinoxes- 25,800 years
Julian Day/Astronomical Day= # of days since Julian cycle started
1 year = 365 days = 8760 hours = 525,600 minutes = 31,536,000 seconds
360 degrees/24 hours=15 degrees/1 hour=1 degree/4 minutes
Names of months are Roman gods
Names of days are Teutonic deities (Norse gods)- Moon, Tiw, Woden, Thor, Fria, Saturn-Roman, Sun
“PZT”= Photographic Zenith Tube- can determine spinning of the earth to 1 second
Master Clock- vibrations of cesium atoms / 24 hours by PZT sightings- atomic clocks
Universal Time (UTO) is the equivalent to mean solar time at Greenwich Meridian
Universal Coordinate Time (UTC) is the average of several atomic time scales
The equation of time equals the difference between apparent and mean time.
The whole world has the same day when the international date line is at midnight.
June 21- summer solstice- longer days
December 21- winter solstice- shorter days
September 23- autumnal equinox
March 20- vernal equinox- night and day equal
Sun & Moon movements

The Saura[1] Varsha or the solar year has been precisely measured as equal to 365.2421896698 days long, although it is gradually becoming shorter by about half a second per century. This movement of the Sun around the zodiac (or movement of the earth around the Sun) is the primary model on which the lunar movement has to be superimposed.
The movement of the Moon in the zodiac can be measured by two methods –

  1. The movement around the zodiac considered independently, which is approximately 27 days and 7 ¾ hours. Based on this, the zodiac of 3600 was divided into 27 Nakshatra, (each 130 20’ of arc). Each Nakshatra was identified with a star, (or star cluster) and derived its name from it. The 7-¾ hour shortfall in a sidereal lunar transit was made up by a short-span intercalary (hypothetical) Nakshatra called Abhijit. The span of Abhijit is determined proportionally as (7h 38min / 24 hrs) x 130 20’ = 40 14’ 13″. This span is from 2760 40’ to 2800 54″ 13″ overlapping the 21st Nakshatra (Uttarasadha).
  2. The relative motion between the Sun and the Moon from one conjunction to another (or from one opposition to another) defines the Lunar Month (Chandra Masa). This period is 29.5305888531 days long, but getting longer by a fiftieth of a second per century. Thus, there are 12.36826639275 lunar months in a tropical year. We can use various types of approximation to synchronize these two periods of the Sun & Moon i.e. the Solar Year and the Lunar Month.

The history of the calendar is the attempt of various astronomers, astrologers, priests and mathematicians to perform the ultimate magic of synchronizing the Solar and Lunar periods. There is also the constant attempt to tinker with the solar calendar itself to have perfect months. This is a separate issue which we shall discuss as we study the history of the calendar.

Varahamihira recommends Suklanta: lunar months initiated from the end of the bright fortnight.

Ancient calendars were based on lunar months, but in order to keep the calendar in step with the seasons, it was necessary to insert extra months, because 12 lunar months are 10.8751234326 days short of a tropical year. The point to be noted is that the Vedic astrology paradigm uses the sidereal zodiac where the relative motion of the solar system itself, in this universe is noted and its precession has been measured @ 50.23 seconds of arc per year. This translates into an additional 20 minutes of time in a solar year.

The Vedic Calendar is the oldest and tries to cover this shortfall of 10.87 days between 12 lunar months and a year by interpolating an extra month every third year called he Adhika Masa. Since the names of the months[2] were based on the Nakshatra position of the Full Moon, I have every reason to believe that the months were initiated from the end of the full Moon called Poornima (when the Satya Narayana Vrata is performed and a person promises to abide by Dharma and be truthful). This Vedic calendar called ‘Suklanta’ is in vogue even today in some parts of Punjab and Orissa, although the later period New Moon calendar has become popular. These divergent views of reckoning of the starting of the Lunar Month are called as Amanta (i.e. Amavasya + Anta or the end of Amavasya the last day in the dark half) and Suklanta (i.e. the end of Sukla Paksha as the starting point of the Lunar Month). Yavanacharya (called Yavanas) preferred the Amanta method[3] of reckoning Lunar Months, whereas Varahamihira who followed the ancient Maharishi’s and was no less than a Maharishi himself, followed the Suklanta. Thus, I would prefer to follow Varahamihira and believe that this must have been the correct method of reckoning the Lunar Months.

This was the first approximation and had an inbuilt error of 3.095 days in every 3 years that would tend to shift the seasons back by as much time. This inbuilt error can be rectified by having another Adhika Masa every 30 years i.e. every 30th year has two Adhika Masa (leaves an error of about 1.417 days in 30 years) and yet another every 625 years (i.e. every 625th year has 3 Adhika Masa).

Saturn’s years & Metonic cycle

Around 432 B.C., Meton of Athens noticed that 235 lunar months were almost exactly equal to 19 tropical years and proposed a 19-year cycle of intercalation. This is the same as the dasa period of 19 years for Saturn. We know that Saturn has Brahma the creator as its deity and that the entire creation process evolves on the mutual relation between the Sun (representing the father) and the Moon (representing the Mother). Thus, it may not be too far fetched to say that the Vedic seers were well aware of this Metonic cycle of 19 years where the relative periods of the Solar Year and the Lunar month matched. They referred to this as the cycle of creation and attributed the period to Saturn.

The Eclipse factor & Gaurabda

The basic difference between the two methods of reckoning of Lunar Month is based on the eclipse. It is well known that the solar eclipse occurs only at a new Moon, as the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun, casting its shadow toward the Earth whereas the lunar eclipse occurs only at the Full Moon as the earths shadow falls on the Moon. The fact that the birth of Sri Gauranga (Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu) is used as the starting of a spiritual calendar called the Gaurabda shows that the Full Moon (i.e. Suklanta) was used to determine the lunar month. Further, Sri Chaitanya was born during a lunar eclipse.

Eclipses do not occur in every month, due to the fact that the shadow cast by the Moon (Solar eclipse) or the earth (lunar eclipse) passes over the Earth/Moon respectively. This pass over is caused as the Moons orbit is tilted to the earths orbit (called the ecliptic) by 5 degrees. The points of intersection of the lunar orbit on the ecliptic are called Rahu (the ascending Node) and Ketu (the descending Node). Only at those times when the new Moon is near one of its nodes can an eclipse occur. Thus, when the new Moon appears within 18-3/4 days before or after the alignment of a node, a solar eclipse will take place. This creates a 37 &1/2-day time frame for eclipses, called an eclipse season, indicating the conditions being favorable for an eclipse to occur.

The nodes of the lunar orbit are gradually shifting their orientation in space and moving in a retrograde manner leading to a shift in successive annual eclipses by 18.62 days. Thus, the eclipse year is about 346.62 days (i.e. 365.24 – 18.62 = 346.62 days). Now, the synodic month (called Masa) does not match this period. However the ancient Vedic seers had known that in about every 18 years cycle this does fall in place . Thus, a period of 18 years 11-1/3 days (or 18 years 10-1/3 days if five February 29ths fall within the period), Saros cycle coincides closely with 19 eclipse years: 223 synodic months (29.5306 days) = 6,585.32 days and 19 eclipse years (346.6200 days) = 6,585.78 days. This is the period of Rahu in Vimsottari Dasa and it was apt to give this period to Rahu, the ascending node that causes the eclipse of the luminaries.

The paths of the solar eclipse (shadow on earth) gradually widen as they shift to more northerly latitudes in every successive eclipse. The longitude for each successive eclipse in the series shifts to the west by about 120 degrees. The Solar eclipse has a profound impact on geo-politics. The areas traversed by the Umbra are normally those where political upheavals are definitely going to occur, although this may not be immediate. For example, the death of Herod the evil king and child slayer occurred close to an eclipse that is used to time the birth of Christ as occurring before that period. As another example, we see that the Moon’s umbra never passed over the city of London during a period of 837 years between consecutive total solar eclipses in the years 878 and 1715. During this period the British Royalty was at its height. I finish here for the Jyotish Pundits to do their research.

___________________________________________________
[1] Saura is derived from the word Sura or Surya

[2] Mukunda Daivagya in his immortal classic Nasta Jataka often uses the term ‘Sukladi Chandra Masa’ i.e. use of the lunar months whose names are based on the position of the Moon in a constellation during the full moon.

[3] Ref: Mukunda Daivagyna in Nasta Jatakam; chapter Varahadi Yukti Prakaranam Sloka 17-20.

continued from Sambandha#1. The case studies done as a part of the discussions in the previous paper are listed here.

Graha Ārudha (required for some charts)

Calculation rules
1. For Graha Ārudha, count from the planet to its own sign. Then count as many signs from this own sign. The sign arrived at is the Graha Ārudha.
2. If by the above calculation, the Ārudha of a planet is determined to be in the same sign itself, then the tenth house from it should be treated as the Ārudha.
3. If by the above calculation, the Ārudha of a planet is determined to be in the seventh sign from it, then the fourth house from it should be treated as the Ārudha.

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Correct thinking – its simple 7 x 4 = 28
But then I tell you about the 13 petal lotus at the door of Jagannath at Puri [East = Sun = Vāra = 7] The Savana Year using the Vāra is as follows –
Month = 4 weeks = 7 x 4 = 28 days = 28 nakshatra [see the mapping into sarvato bhadra] 13 Months = 13 x 28 = 364 Days
Each Year has 365.25 days … so what happens in 4 years? Every Year is 365 Days – why? So that the Vāra progresses ahead by one day [Laghu] What happens to the shortfall of 0.25 days every year? This is added every 4th year to form the Leap Year when Vāra progresses ahead by 2 Days instead of one [Guru] Path of Agni [Vāra] is
1 2          3       4
Laghu, Laghu, Laghu, Guru
This is the root of Chandas which is always in one pada (foot) comprising 4 sounds
Then the P­ada (step) comprises two foot = 8 syllables
If you were born on Wednesday, then the path of Agni for each year after birth is as follows

Year    Day     Lord
1          Wed    Me
2          Thu     Ju        [Laghu …for every year except where Guru is mentioned] 3          Fri       Ve
4          Sun     Su       [Guru jumps a day, this is the Leap in the Leap year and thats why its called a Leap year] 5          Mon    Mo
6          Tue     Ma
7          Wed    Me
8          Fri       Ve       [Guru] 9          Sat      Sa

This is the basis of the leap Year system which is followed by the Gregorian Calendar as well as the United States government for their elections. For this reason, Agni favours the US.
Why don’t you use this in your personal life planning using a Year of 52 Weeks having 13 months and finally always give yourself one day off at the end, the 365th day to reflect on the year while every 4th year you give yourself 2 days – one for the normal life plan while the 2nd day is for spiritual plans and thoughts.


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