There are 22 jyotiṣa gems whose Sanskrit names are known

  • 12 jyotiṣa gems for the rāśi
  • 9 jyotiṣa gems for the graha
  • 1 jyotiṣa gem for the lagna
Sanskrit Trans English (?) Sanskrit Trans English (?)
1 वज्र vajra Diamond 12 शशिकान्ता śaśikāntā Moon-stone
2 इन्द्रनील indranīla Sky Sapphire 13 सौगन्धिक saugandhika Lotus-Ruby
3 मरकत marakata Emerald 14 गोमेदक gomedaka Hessonite
4 कर्केतर karketara Chrysoberyl 15 शङ्ख śaṅkha Nacre
5 पद्मराग padmarāga Ruby 16 महानील mahānīla Blue Sapphire
6 रुधिर rudhira Carnelian 17 पुष्पराग puṣparāga Yellow ~
7 वैदूर्य vaidūrya Beryl Cats eye? 18 ब्रह्ममणि brahmamaṇi Topaz?
8 पुलक pulaka Garnet 19 ज्योतीरस jyotīrasa Agate
9 विमलक vimalaka Pyrite 20 सस्यक sasyaka Azurite
10 राजमणि rājamaṇi Red Diamond? 21 मुक्ता muktā Pearl
11 स्फटिक sphaṭika Rock Crystal 22 प्रवाल pravāla Red Coral

Pañca ratna

Five principal gemstones for pañca tattva listed in veda
Used when planets are in own sign indicating the tattva and are lighter color

  1. Vajra (Diamond): Jala | Used to free the waters by Indra
  2. Indra-nīla (Sapphire): Vāyu
  3. Marakata (Emerald): Pṛthvi
  4. Padmarāga (Ruby):    Agni
  5. Muktā (Ivory-Pearl): Ākāśa

Navaratna śloka

“Bṛhat Jātaka1”, quoted in the “Maṇi- mālā2” also “Jātaka Pārijāta3”
māṇikyaṁ taraṇeḥ sujātyamamalaṁ muktāphalaṁ śītagoḥ
māheyasya ca vidrumaṁ marakataṁ saumyasya gārutmatama
devejyasya ca puṣparājamasurācāryasya vajraṁ śaneḥ
nīlaṁ nirmalamanyayośca gadite gomedavaidūryake

  • Māṇikya (Ruby for Sun)
  • Muktā (Pearl for Moon)
  • Vidruma (Coral for Mars)
  • Marakata (Emerald for Mercury)
  • Puṣparāga (Yellow Sapphire for Jupiter)
  • Vajra (Diamond for Venus)
  • Nīla (Blue Sapphire for Saturn)
  • Gomeda (Hessonite or Opal for Rāhu)
  • Vaidūrya (Beryl, Cats Eye for Ketu)
  1. Varāhamihira
  2. page 575, verse 79 by S.M. Tagore (1879)
  3. chap. 2, sloka 21 compiled by Śrī Vaidyanātha Dikṣitar