Paper on Relationships presented in SJC, USA 2005
Before venturing into delineating relationships between two individuals or group dynamics, we need to understand the meaning of ‘sambandha’ and its various connotations. Thereafter, we shall examine the Jyotisha principles concerning people and houses, and finally we shall examine the relationships, both natural and temporal as well as its manifestation, meaning and implications. Vedic remedial measures will be touched, if time permits.

Sambandha defined

The word sambandha in Sanskrit means binding or joining, a close connection or union or association, conjunction, inherence, connection with or relation to. It connotes personal connection like a relationship, fellowship, friendship and even intimacy. The word ‘sambandhi’ (or as used ‘samdhi’ refers to a kinsman, a relationship brought about by a marriage or family by birth. In philosophical terms, this relationship is said to be of three kinds:

1. Samav-āya: coming together, meeting, congregate, contact, concourse, assemblage, collection, crowd, assemblage are some words that describe this relationship. The individual is in a perpetual (time/daśā defined) co-inherence, be it an inner or intimate relationship or a peripheral relation requiring identification with some symbols and beliefs like an association. It indicates an inseparable concomitance like the relationship between a substance and its qualities like the yarn in cloth. It connotes intimate and constant companionship or relationship like that of birth defining a father and son.

2. Samyoga: also sayoga, meaning junction, union; it defines the highest sate of a relationship like the last (of the fourteen) stage leading to emancipation from the cycle of rebirth. The word ‘yoga’ has a very wide meaning (see para 1.2).

3. Svarupa: having own form or shape like sabda~ which means having the form of sound. It refers to own condition, peculiarity, character or nature like ‘of a kind’. A relationship caused because of an event or occurrence.

Yoga

Yoga has many meanings and implications in astrology. Some of these are listed below for a better understanding of the word. A sambandha caused by any of these can be understood as samyoga.
1. It indicates yoking, joining, harnessing or attaching like yoking a team to play a game or yoking horses to pull a carriage. It implies that the individual parts involved in the yoga (yoke) should function in harmony. In Jyotiśa, these are called paraspara-yoga-kāraka or mutual co-workers.
2. It indicates and undertaking, business, action, work or employment of some kind for the purpose of earning wealth, acquisition, gains or profit or property. In Jyotiśa, these are called sūrya yoga or more precisely, āditya yoga.
3. It indicates any conjunction, union, combination or contact and indicates mixing or a mixture. In Jyotiśa, these are called Graha yoga and are named based on the number of planets conjoining in a sign.
4. It indicates a connection or relationship as a consequence of, or reason or because of something else. The reason or cause is the kāraka (significator) and consequently, these yogas are called Kāraka yoga in Jyotiśa.
5. It indicates putting together or arranging, based on disposition in a regular succession. In Jyotiśa, the longitudes of the individual planets are considered to arrange them in a regular succession of decreasing (longitudinal) hierarchy called ‘Chara kāraka’. These planets then acquire the potential for various generating yogas.
6. It indicates zealous endeavor with care and using all of one’s powers to achieve a goal. Such zeal can only come from the individual soul called the ātmakāraka indicating the native’s strong inner urges and desires. The yogas, in Jyotiśa are consequently called ātmakāraka yoga or simply kāraka yoga.
7. It indicates abstract contemplation; meditation and such other practices to attain union (yoga) with God and all these are called adhyātma yoga (spirituality) in Jyotiśa. It includes renunciation (sanyāsa yoga), mantra śāstra, Pātanjali’s (samkhya-II) yoga philosophy, rituals (where yoga is personified as the son of Dharma & Kriya) etc.
8. It indicates the union of puruśa (spirit personified as father) and prākŕti (nature personified as mother) for the purpose of all creation (saëkhyā śastra). In Jyotiśa, the Sun indicates the puruśa and the Moon indicates prākŕti. The relationship between these planets indicates the Yoga of birth of which there are 27 types. This leads to yet another meaning for the word yoga as ‘sum’ in arithmetic.
9. It indicates the constellation (of the 27 nakśatra), which is conjoined the Moon and is called ‘Candra yoga’. This is extended into other varieties of Candra yoga based on certain planetary positions that influence the health and mind. The nakśatra, which do not have the conjunction or association of the Moon, are called ‘Kha yoga’ or having the yoga (association) of the sky (kha). This leads to another variety of Jyotiśa combinations called Kha yoga or Nābhasa yoga.

In this manner, the various meanings of the word yoga can be studies with a focus on its relevance to Vedic astrology. Suffice is to say that the word has a very deep meaning and any superficial reading will cause a vacuum in our understanding and judging of real life situations.

Rāśi (Moon sign) relationship

The lord of the Janma rāśi is called the Subhapati in a horoscope. This planet is the controller of the fortunes and well-being of the individual and can be viewed as the sustainer of the chart. In matching charts for marriages and other relationships like business etc, this criterion is considered crucial and is called rāśiādhipati or graha-maitreya (planetary relationship).

Rāśi küta

The moot principle in matching charts is to determine the ‘puruśa’ and ‘prākriti’ or the male and female principles. In marriage matching, this is easy as the male is taking on the role of the puruśa and the female takes the role of prākriti. In business or other relationships, the dominant or active partner shall take the role of puruśa while the passive partner takes the role of prākriti.
Prepare a matching chart by placing the Sun in the same sign and nakśatra as that occupied by the natal Moon (Janma rāśi) of the active partner. The Janma rāśi and nakśatra of the passive partner should be taken as such. If the Sun-Moon relationship in the matching chart indicates śukla pakśa (bright half), then the match is said to be good and will lead to growth just like the waxing Moon. If instead, the relationship is krśna pakśa then the enterprise or relationship will end as the waning moon indicates decline and destruction. Thus, before entering into a relationship, it is necessary to check whether it shall grow or perish. Count the number of signs from the Sun (Janma rāśi of dominant partner/bridegroom) to the Moon (Janma rāśi of passive partner/bride) both inclusive. The resultant number gives some indications as listed below.

Table 1: Rāśi kuta

Number Results
1 General well being and compatibility is indicated. Check the naksatra match. If the naksatra are different, it is excellent and in the case of marriage, sons and grandsons will issue from the wedlock. If they are the same then there shall be fear of poison and one of them could suffer severe ill-health and/or children could also suffer due to näga nadi or other flaws. This is sure to happen if the naksatra is Bharani (2), Rohini (4), Ardrä (6), Pusyä (8), Aslesä (9), Makhä (10), Hastä (13), Jyesthä (18), Mūlä (19), Pūrvasadhä (20), Dhanistä (23) or Satabhisa (24).
2 Good compatibility; financial problems and hardships (Harihara).
3 Excellent friendship and relationship; long term if planets concerned are friends.
4 Very compatible; growth in wealth
5 Very compatible; many children
6 Fairly compatible; short term relationship; destruction and ruin (Brihaspati) unless the Subhapati are mutually friendly; separation or quarrel – if the Subhapati are mutual foes or there is vedha, then the intensity of evil is very high (Harihara). If they are friends, then this can be considered.
7 Excellent compatibility, especially in matters concerning the opposite sex.
8 Diseases (Madhavacharya); destruction and ruin (Brihaspati) unless the Subhapati are mutually friendly; separation, quarrel or death and if the Subhapati are mutual foes or there is vedha, then the intensity of evil is very high (Harihara). However, if the passive partner (Moon) has an even Janma räsi, then this match is to be rejected (Harihara).
9 No compatibility and no growth; in case of a marriage, loss of children is indicated (Madhavacharya);
10 Quarrels and misunderstanding (Madhavacharya); marriage maybe considered if the Subhapati are friendly (Brihaspati) and will last, but there will be many quarrels.
11 Sorrow is indicated (Madhavacharya);
12 No compatibility and many problems; especially financial losses (Madhavacharya) and poverty (Harihara).

Naisargika sambandha

Naisargika Graha sambandha or natural planetary relationships are eternal and are of various types depending on the context. Parāsara teaches the general rule which is applied in two stages. First step is the determination of natural relationship. This is based on the mūlatrikona (office) and is the desire of every planet to achieve its object. Second step is the modification to this in individual charts.

Satyācarya’s rule: The lords of the signs in 2, 4, 5, 8, 9 & 12 from the mūlatrikona sign of a planet are its friends.

Table 2: Natural friendship

Planet Friend Neutral Enemy
Sun Moon, Mars, Jupiter Mercury Venus, Saturn
Moon Sun, Mercury Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury
Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon
Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus
Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon
Saturn Mercury, Venus Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars
Although we do need to know this for the nodes as relationships are with ‘real’ people having physical bodies, nevertheless, we can determine their friends and foes to understand the relationship between the deities of Hinduism.
Rahu Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon, Mercury
Ketu Moon, Mars Mercury, Venus, Saturn Sun, Jupiter

The relationship between Ganeśa (indicated by Ketu) and Śiva (Sun) is seen in Ketu treating Sun as an enemy whereas the Sun treats Ketu as a friend. The episode of Ganeśa guarding the door and not even allowing Śiva inside when the mother was taking a bath and a fight ensuing between the two resulting in the cutting of Ganeśa’s head by Śiva is too well known. Here, Ganeśa proved to be the best guardian of the door and unconsciously acted inimically towards his own father. He was only doing the job (mūlatrikona-office) entrusted to Him by the mother. He is the favorite of Gouri (Moon) and these relationships show up in the table given above.
If the nodes are to be used in planetary relations, then the following information can be useful. Often astrologers tend to confuse eclipse relations with the mūlatrikona relations. Relationships between individuals can be for a variety of reasons of which the mūlatrikona (office/work/duty/desire fulfillment) is the most common and is given here. There are other relationships like marriage or worship, which are purely personal or domestic activities, or the purely financial relationships, which require a different model as, taught by Jaimini Mahaŕśi. A business partnership is more than just financial relationship as it brings two or more people into a working (mūlatrikona) relationship.

Table 3: Nodes ownership

Node Own Sign Mülatrikona Exaltation
Rahu Aquarius Virgo Gemini
Ketu Scorpio Pisces Sagittarius

Tatkālika sambandha

Tatkālika sambandha or temporal relationship are the second stage modification of the natural relationship and varies from one chart to another. Since the entire Parāsarian model of relationships is based on mūlatrikona (office or work), this principle is carried over to the second stage as well.

It is well known that the Sun is the keeper of time and that all activities of men shall be governed by the Sun. The birds fly out of their nest with the first ray of the Sun and return with the last ray of the setting Sun. Their sensitivity to the time indications of the Sun causes their entire group (birds) to be over-lorded by the Sun. Men are more emotional and have the highest share of mental working causing them to be over-lorded by the Moon instead. It is natural that their working and relationships will be governed by ‘moods and tastes’. The activities following the Sun are based on ‘muhurta’. Brahma muhurta coinciding with Brahma gayatri starts the day. The activities reach an acme at midday, which is called ‘Abhijit muhurta’ coinciding with Viśnu gayatri. Thereafter, the energies and rays decline until sunset, which is the ‘Rudra/Siva gayatri’. The activities of darkness begin after sunset and reach a nadir at midnight called the ‘Kali gayatri’.

In this working day, since planets represent people, every planet would like to be in the highest state i.e. akin to Abhijit muhurta or in Viśnu gāyatri connoting success, fame, wealth and all the good things of life that go with it. Such a planet attains the form of Viśnu and becomes an avatar. He sits on the throne and like Indra, becomes the king of the skies (svarga). During the day, the lagna starts with the Sun at Brahma gayatri, goes to the fourth house from the Sun in Viśnu gayatri, seventh house from the Sun in Śiva gāyatri and finally, the tenth house from the Sun in Kali gayatri. Reckoned from Lagna, at midday, the Sun is in the tenth house and this fact is used in determining the relationship.

If this is the position that every planet wishes to have in its working environment, then its relationships have to be based on this desirable situation. The midday situation of lagna with the Sun in the tenth house is extended to the planet and for the planet to rise at midday, sunrise should occur in the sign in the tenth house from it. The following deductions can be made based on this hypothetical situation, which will amount to a derivation of the rules taught by Parāsara on this subject.

Table 4: Tatkālika sambandha rules

The sign occupied by the planet is akin to midday This is the throne of the planet. It defines its avastha (situation or mood or age), its bala (strengths) and everything else.
The tenth house from it is akin to sunrise This is the first definition of sambandha and the planets placed in the tenth from it shall herald its ascendancy. The planets in the tenth house are temporal friends.
The fourth from it shall be akin to sunset The planets in this house shall be the last to leave the sinking ship or shall be the most loyal/trusted. The planets in the fourth house are temporal friends.
The sign opposite to it shall be akin to midnight. This is the nadir and shall define the opposition or he who shall rule after the planet abdicates. The planets in the seventh house are temporal enemies.
The signs/planets intervening from the tenth house from it to its seat will help him to achieve the position These supporters join the herald in helping the planet’s ascendancy. The signs intervening are the 11th and 12th houses. The planets in the 11th and 12th house are temporal friends.
The signs from its seat to its fourth house shall help sustain/continue his kingly position. These supporters join the king (planet under consideration) after his ascendancy and support his claim to the throne. The signs intervening are the 2nd & 3rd houses. The planets in the 2nd and 3rd houses are temporal friends.
The signs after sunset (darkness) shall work towards his downfall as everyone wishes to be in the light or ‘limelight’. These signs are the 5th to 9th houses. The planets in the 5th to 9th houses shall be temporal enemies.
No king likes to share his throne with others. Sharing power causes a weakness in the throne that is not stable. That is why four or more planets conjoining can cause pravrajya yoga implying exile or renunciation. The planets in the same sign are temporal enemies.

Application

These temporal relationship rules when applied to a chart cause a modification in the natural relationship. This new relationship that develops is pancada (five fold) and the clear lines of ‘friends-neutrals-enemies’ given by natural relationships gets modified as follows:

1. Intimacy (very close or strong friend); definition: a natural friend who is also a temporal friend. Such intimate friends and supporters are the most trustworthy for a long-term relationship.
2. Friendship (protagonist, supporter and well-wishers), definition: a natural neutral who becomes a temporal friend. Such friends support a cause that lead to ascendancy while in principle they do not support the ideals.
3. Acquaintance (known, neutral, associate), definition: a natural friend who becomes a temporal enemy or a natural enemy who becomes a temporal friend. Such people are the ones who secretly either support (natural friends) or oppose (natural enemies) the ideals but find it convenient, or are in a situation that makes them sympathize with the opposition. They change sides whenever the wind blows the other way.
4. Antagonist (antagonist, oppose, malice, ill will), definition: a natural neutral who becomes a temporal enemy. Such people do not have any fundamental difference in ideology but because of a situation or convenience tend to become antagonistic or support the opposition.
5. Hostility (Enmity, bitterness, hatred, acrimony) definition: a natural enemy who becomes a temporal enemy. Such people are fundamentally opposed and bear great bitterness. Given the right circumstances, their hostility will surely come to the fore.

Example 1: Tatkālika sambandha chart
The example chart has the Moon in Aquarius and its lord Saturn, being the Subhapati is placed in Capricorn. To determine the sambandha, we need to follow the steps:
• Saturn has its mulatrikona in Aquarius. The lords of the 2 & 12, 4 & 8 and 5 & 9 are its friends while the rest are enemies. Reckoned from Aquarius, Jupiter is the lord of 2 (friend) and 11 (enemy). Therefore, Jupiter is neutral. In this manner we get the natural relations
Natural relations

Planet Friend Neutral Enemy
Saturn Mercury, Venus Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Ketu

• The sign Capricorn should be treated as the seat or throne of Saturn. The planets in the 10, 11, 12, 2, 3 & 4 houses have temporal good relations. These are Ketu (12), Moon (2) and Jupiter (3)
• The rest have temporal bad relationship/enmity. The Sun, Mars & Rahu are natural as well as temporal enemy making them hostile and bitter enemies of Saturn. The Moon & Ketu are natural enemies but temporal friends making them neutral acquaintances. Mercury and Venus are natural friends and temporal enemies making them neutral. Jupiter is naturally neutral and a temporal friend making it a friend.
Temporal relations

Planet Adi-mitra (Intimate) Mitra (Friend) Sama (Neutral) Satru (antagonist) Adi-satru (hostile)
Saturn Jupiter Mercury, Venus, Moon, Ketu Sun, Mars, Rahu,

Similar deductions are made for all the planets and tabulated as indicated below the charts.

Deduction
The examination of temporal relations in the chart clearly shows that the native shall not have any intimate friends and shall be a loner by nature. The only friends are indicated by Jupiter while there shall be quite a few acquaintances and some very hostile enemies. However, as a note of abundant caution, this is only the initial estimate based on the Janma rāśi.
…continued in  Sambandha II =Go>

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