First Republic of China
Recent History of China
Previously at the turn of the century (1899-1901), the “Boxer Rebellion” in Northern China tried to squeeze the Qing administration, push out dominant foreign influence of Japan and Russia and restore ancient traditional rule. But they failed.
On April 5, 1911 a railway contract was given to a four-power group of foreign bankers. But the modus operandi behind the compensation for the local company finally resulted in an open revolt in Sep 1911. This was the Xinhai Revolution after the year of the Chinese calendar in which it occurred. On 10 Oct 1911 the revolutionaries attacked and overwhelmed imperial forces in the city of Wuchang. ‘10 Oct’ was later declared the National Day of the Republic of China and is also known as ‘Double Ten Day’.
These revolts ultimately led to proclamation of “Republic of China” on 1 Jan 1912 and delegates from provinces elected Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan) as the first Provisional President. On 12 Feb 1912, the boy emperor was compelled to abdicate. By a proclamation the government was transferred to the people’s representatives. It further declared that the constitution should be republican and gave Yuan Shikai full powers to organize a provisional government. The Qing dynasty (also known as the Manchu dynasty), had ruled from 1644–1912.
Republic of China
Since 7th Lord Mars is in lagna we are required to examine the chart with Dvisaptati Sama daśā. The revolutionary turned President of Republic Sun Yat-sen is seen by Mars in lagna [the one who is praised] while his close associate Song Jiaoren is indicated by Mercury [in trines]. The tenth lord Rāhu shows Yuan Shikai, one who gets president through political manoeuvring rather than participation in revolution. His associate who became vice-president by manipulating the strings Li Yuanhong, is shown by debilitated Saturn.
In the 9th bhāva Mercury (Song Jiaoren) will try to establish dharma. In Aug 1912 (Mars daśā Saturn antara) the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded as Saturn is 9th Lord for elections. In the national elections of Feb 1913 (Ma-Sa) for the new bicameral parliament, Song campaigned against the Yuan administration (largely Republican Party), led by Liang Qichao. An able campaigner [Mercury is an orator] Song won most seats leading the Kuomintang to victory.
A month after the election, Song was assassinated in Mars daśā Rāhu antara (Mar 1913). There is a strong possibility that Yuan Shikai (Rāhu) was responsible. Mars in Lagna dominating the chart, attempts at parliamentary rule was not going to last as Mars shows use of military force. In July 1913 seven southern provinces rebelled against Yuan but he defeated them. Sun Yat-sen was forced to flee to Japan on 1 Sep 1913 (Ma-Ra battle continues). [When the 7th lord is in Lagna or vice-versa the native will have to leave home to seek fortunes abroad. Here Mars shows fleeing after battle for shelter rather than a journey for seeking fortune].
Yuan could not be bothered by the parliament which was still dominated by the popular Kuomintang. So, he simply dissolved it in Jan 1914 in the same Rāhu antara. On 12 Dec 1915 Yuan declared himself emperor of China – rebellion followed and in three months on 22 Mar 1916, he stepped down and died soon on 6 June 1916 in Moon antardaśā. True to its calling, Moon pulled Rāhu down, but more so as it is in the 8th house from Rāhu in Aries it also led to his death. In a way, China had ceased to be a republic the day Yuan crowned himself.
Sun Yat-Sen Era (1916-25)Mercury daśā was starting in a month and the totalitarian Mars had to give way but strangely all it did was promote a feudalism of a lowly nature. Mercury in Capricorn in proximity to the Sun, with the aspect from debilitated Saturn can be deemed a pāpa-graha as there are no redeeming aspects from natural benefic planets.
Li Yuanhong (Saturn) became the President (10th bhāva) after Yuan (Rāhu) with Duan Qirui as Premier. He was even more authoritarian and his disregard for the constitution made Sun Yat-sen et.al., to promulgate a new government in Guangzhou (Canton) in Sep 1917 when Mercury daśā Jupiter antara started. They waged a ‘Constitutional Protection War’ through 1918 (Me-Ju and Me-Ve). Again defeated by internal politics and sidelined, Sun Yat-sen left. But to his good fortune the ‘Fourth May Movement’ [started on 4 May 1919 Me-Ve period] brought him back to limelight. In Oct 1919 he re-established the Kuomintang (KMT) in exile thereby countering the government in Beijing being led under a succession of warlords but interestingly still maintained its legitimacy with the West! It is interesting that Europe preferred to deal with warlords than support an elected government.
About 1921 (Me-Ra) the Soviet Union supported the CCP (new Chinese Communist Party) in addition to Sun Yat-sen. Rāhu again showed its head and Sun Yat-sen was going to become uncomfortable. In 1922 (Me-Su) the Kuomintang-warlord alliance in Guangzhou was ruptured, and Sun fled to Shanghai. Sun Yat-sen died of cancer in Beijing in Mar 1925 [Me-Ma-Ra].
In many ways this daśā of Jupiter was a golden period of the republic. It was “one of consolidation and accomplishment under the leadership of the Nationalists, with a mixed but generally positive record in the economy, social progress, development of democracy and cultural creativity. Some of the harsh aspects of foreign concessions and privileges in China were moderated through diplomacy. In May 1930 the government regained the right to set its tariff, which before then had been set by the foreign powers.” – Wikipedia
Perhaps the only dissatisfied ones were the Kumulik Uyghurs who got the support of Hui muslim Gen. Ma Zhongying to overthrow Jin Shuren, governor of Xinjiang. The Kuomintang (KMT) clandestinely supported the Uyghurs while the CCP supported governor Jin who was close to the soviets. This was the first major shearing between KMT and CCP. It lasted between 1931-34 with the Soviet invasion of Xinjiang. As Jupiter daśā ended and Venus started, the Red Army’s Long March in 1934 led to more power for the central government over that of the warlods and other foreign powers.
War and Destruction (1934-43)
Venus in the 8th bhāva saw a great struggle and many wars and destruction. It was on 7 July 1937 (Ve-Ra-Ju) that the Chinese refused to budge any further at the Marco Polo Bridge in Beijing, as the Japanese pushed for territory. China saw a lot of destruction during this period and was on the opposite side of the Axis powers as she was fighting Japan.
Saturn (1943-52) brings Communism to China
With the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World war-II, the Chinese Civil war broke out. The KMT were much larger but were losing to the propaganda power of CCP. Saturn had made them tired and ‘old’. The US brokered peace in Jan 1946 (Sa-Su) but they walked out of China by withdrawing their mission in early 1947 (Sa-Mo). In a years’ time they were on the run.
Exile of the First Republic
In Jan 1949 (Sa-Ma-Mo) Beiping was taken by CCP and name changed back to Beijing. On 1st Oct 1949 Mao Zedong officially proclaimed the “People’s Republic of China” thereby bringing an end to the First Republic.
From Oct 1949 Chiang Kai-shek and a few hundred thousand Republic of China (KMT) troops and two million refugees, predominantly from the government and business community, fled from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. The exodus occurred in Saturn daśā Mercury antara.
The opposition to the CCP was as good as dead. Finally, on 7 Dec 1949 (Sa-Me-Su) Chiang proclaimed Taipei, Taiwan, the temporary capital of the Republic of China! More like a capital in exile.
Even today, The Government of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Government of Taiwan, is the democratic, constitutional government that exercises control over Taiwan and other islands in the free area.
This first republic chart is the actual chart for Taiwan/ Republic of China