The Sun Signs – Zodiac

Dvādasa Āditya[1]– The twelve Sun Signs: For one reason or the other, whether it be the conquest of the Normans or the birth of Christ, the starting date of the year has been varying as calendars come and go. In the scheme of Vedic astrology, the solar calendar consists of twelve houses of 30 degrees each covering the total span of 360 degrees. These are called the twelve Sun Signs (dvādasa āditya). These signs are fixed (unlike that used in the western astrology) although the names and other significations, nature etc are similar to that used in Western Astrology.

Table 1: The Characteristics of the Signs

Sign Triplicity  Quadruplicity Sex Ruler
No Name Mobility Guṇa
1 Aries Fire Movable Rajas Male Mars
2 Taurus Earth Fixed Tamas Female Venus
3 Gemini Air Dual Sattva Male Mercury
4 Cancer Water Movable Rajas Female Moon
5 Leo Fire Fixed Tamas Male Sun
6 Virgo Earth Dual Sattva Female Mercury
7 Libra Air Movable Rajas Male Venus
8 Scorpio Water Fixed Tamas Female Mars & Ketu[2]
9 Sagittarius Fire Dual Sattva Male Jupiter
10 Capricorn Earth Movable Rajas Female Saturn
11 Aquarius Air Fixed Tamas Male Saturn & Rāhu[3]
12 Pisces Water Dual Sattva Female Jupiter

Sign Characteristics

The signs of the zodiac are classified in various ways. The important ones are listed below:

(a)   Sex: The sign is either positive “masculine”, or negative “feminine”. The odd numbered signs (as reckoned from Aries) are the Male or Odd signs while the even numbered signs are Female or Even signs.

(b)   Ruling Element: Each sign belong to one of the triplicity of Fire, Air, Earth and Water (Refer tattva below). “Triplicity” means triplicate or three of a kind and there are three signs of each of the four types of elemental forms. The seers called these the Fire triplicity (Aries, Leo and Sagittarius), because there are three zodiac signs for each element. We will stick to this terminology instead of using the more refined term ‘energy’. Since these signs are similar, this triplicity, trine or trikoṇa (jyotiṣa terminology) represents harmony or similarity of nature/ interest. These signs are 120° apart.

(c)   Mobility: Each sign is either cardinal (movable or Chara), fixed (sthira) or mutable (dual or dvisvabhāva). Thus, every fourth sign reckoned from Aries is movable, every fourth reckoned from Taurus is fixed and every fourth reckoned from Gemini is Dual in nature. This similarity of every fourth is called the quadruplicity of the sign. The movable signs have excessive energy and are capable of easy movement showing the predominance of rajas guṇa. The fixed signs have low energy and have an inability to move thereby showing a predominance of Tamas guṇa. The Dual signs are a balance between the excessive mobility of the movable signs and the immobility of the fixed signs thereby showing a predominance of sattva guṇa. Guṇa is the inner attribute of the sign and this inner nature of the sign manifests externally in different ways and mobility being one of them.


This difference in the tropical and sidereal zodiac of the western astrologer and Vedic astrologer is because Vedic Astrology takes into account the astronomical fact of the precession of the solar system around another point called a “nābhi” or Navel whereby the system processes (like going back) at the rate of about 50.18 seconds per year[5] (others take an average varying from 50″ to 54″ per year based on the time of 26,000 years or 24,000 years for the precession to complete one circle of 360 degrees). This precession results in a mathematical correction called Ayanāṁśa. Viscount Cheiro writes[6] “We must not forget that it was the Hindus who discovered what is known as the precession of the Equinoxes, and in their calculation such an occurrence takes place every 25,827 years. Our modern science, after labors of hundreds of years has simply proved them to be correct.”


The dates assigned to the signs of the zodiac are based on the solar ingress (i.e. entry of the Sun) of the signs. Depending on the value of Ayanāṁśa used, this date can vary by a few days and different “astrologers” assign slightly different dates based on their belief on the date of conjunction of zero point of the precession and Aries (called beginning of Kali Yuga) and the rate of the precession. The Government set up a committee called the Calendar reforms committee to correct the anomaly between the beliefs of different Vedic calendars. The result was what is popularly called the Rashtriya Pañcāṅga (national calendar) and the Lahiri ayanāṁśa. The date at which the Sun enters a sign is called the Saṅkrānti. Thus, we have 12 Saṅkrānti based on the date of the Sun’s entry into each of the 12 signs from Aries to Pisces. Good Vedic Astrologers will date events from the days calculated from Saṅkrānti and also the Tithi. The Vedic Sun signs have a profound influence on the desires of the soul, which is the real individual and if charts are matched based on the Sun signs in addition to the Moon, and then real compatibility can be ascertained. Thus, in a way, people having the same Sun signs as can be called “soul mates”.


Tithi is the Vedic date of the Lunar calendar and is a measure of the distance between the Sun and the Moon starting from Pratipada when they conjoin at Pūrnima when they oppose at 180 degrees. There are 15 Tithi in the Śukla Pakṣa (Waxing Phase) and 15 Tithi in the waning phase (Kṛṣṇa pakṣa) (Refer Table-1). Each Tithi is an angle of 12 degrees. This angle is mathematically represented as:
Angle = Longitude of Moon – Longitude of the Sun
and, Tithi = Angle / 120
Table 2: Tithi or the Vedic date (All angles in degrees)

Pakṣa Tithi Angle Tithi Angle Tithi Angle
Śukla Pakṣa Pratipad-1  0 -12 Dwiteeya-2 12-24 Truteeya-3 24-36
Chaturhi-4 36-48 Panchami-5 48-60 Shasti-6 60-72
Saptami-7 72-84 Astami-8 84-96 Navami-9 96-108
Daśāmi-10 108-120 Ekadasi-11 120-132 Dwadasi-12 132-144
Trayodasi-13 144-156 Chaturdasi-14 156-168 Purnima-15 168-180
Kṛṣṇa Pakṣa Pratipad-1 180-192 Dwiteeya-2 192-204 Truteeya-3 204-216
Chaturhi-4 216-228 Panchami-5 228-240 Shasti-6 240-252
Saptami-7 252-264 Astami-8 264-276 Navami-9 276-288
Daśāmi-10 288-300 Ekadasi-11 300-312 Dwadasi-12 312-324
Trayodasi-13 324-336 Chaturdasi-14 336-348 Amavasya-0 348-360


[1] āditya is the name of the Sun God as born from Aditi [the mother of the Gods or Deva (Deva is derived from Diva, meaning the giver of light or enlightenment)]. There are 12 Āditya or Sun Gods for each of the 12 months of Solar transit through the 12 signs. To find your Sun God/Āditya, refer to Vedic Remedies in Astrology by Sanjay Rath.

[2] Ketu, the descending node is the co-lord of Scorpio

[3] Rahu, the ascending node is the co-lord of Aquarius

[4] Ayanāṁśa: this is the precession of the solar system and is to be added or subtracted from the zero point of Aries in the western chart to arrive at the Vedic Horoscope. For example, the solar ingress into Aries resulting in the start of the Aries Month in western astrology is March 21. However, the Ayanāṁśa at present (2000 AD) is about 23 degrees and adding 23 days to March 21 we get April 14 as the date for Solar ingress into Aries in the Vedic Calendar.

[5] Based on the traditional period of 25,827 years to cover 360 Degrees of the zodiac.

[6] Cheiro Book of numbers, Page 19.

Shankaracharya’s Prayer1Provided in the Bhagavad Gītā with the commentary of Adi Śaṅkara.

narayanaॐ नारायणः परोऽव्यक्तादण्डमव्यक्तसंभवम्।
अण्डस्यान्तस्तित्वमे लोकाः सप्तदीपा च मेदिनी॥
om nārāyaṇaḥ paro’vyaktādaṇḍamavyaktasambhavam|
aṇḍasyāntastitvame lāokaḥ saptdvīpā ca madinī||
Om2OM is the cosmic syllable representing God: Nārāyaṇa3Nārāyaṇa is composed of two words ‘ nara’ meaning ‘ any body ‘ and ‘ āyana ‘ meaning ‘ goal ‘. Thus the composite word Nārāyaṇa means the ultimate goal of every body both living and non-living or mobile and immobile. In a more subtle sense it refers to the individual soul (microcosm) endeavoring to attain union (yoga) with the universal soul (macrocosm). Thus, Nārāyaṇa also means this universal soul or supreme personality of God. is beyond (much above) the unmanifest4The unmanifest is referred to as ‘maya’ or illusion, and in the Bhagavad Gita is called the Akṣara’ (syllable), immutable Brahma. Thus, if Nārāyaṇa is said to be even above this sound syllable which is the source of all creation, then Nārāyaṇa is also Parambrahman or Sadāśiva. The brahmāṇḍa5Brahmāṇḍa: Brahma, the dimurge God evolved from the navel of Nārāyaṇa and ‘ Anda’ literally means the ‘egg. Thus Brahmanda refers to the hiraṇyagarbha (golden embryo – principle of cosmic evolution), whereby the universe was created. In fact ‘ All these worlds ‘ used in the prayer refers to the universe (‘ Virat ‘) composed of five elements (or rather fire states of matter/energy). These are the earth elements (solid), water element (liquids), air element (gases). Fire element (energy) and space element (ether).  (cosmic egg) evolves from the unmanifest. The brahmāṇḍa contains all the worlds including this earth with its seven islands6Śaṅkara is referring to the Geo-centric view (used in Vedic Astrology) of the earth with the earth at the foci and the revolutions of the seven bodies (Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) causing seven Islands of concentric ellipses around it. This order of the planets from Moon to Saturn, when reckoned in the reverse, is the order of the horā’s of the day (i.e. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon). This also forms the basis for the reckoning of the weekday order as the 25th Hora gives the ruling planet of next day..
This prayer of Ādi Saṅkara has been taken from a smriti and gives the ultimate objective of every birth in this world at least. Thus, Śrī Rāmānujācarya has given the best mantra that will guide us to this penultimate goal7(Viṣṇu Aṣṭākṣarī), the eight letter mantra: om namo nārāyaṇāya as “om namo nārāyaṇaya”.



The zodiac, called the bha-chakra symbolises the body of Nārāyaṇa in it physical aspect, as viewed from the earth at the centre. The bhā chakra is divided into twelve signs starting from Aries and is called the 12-petal lotus of Brahma. Since the microcosm (nara) is the same as the macrocosm (Nārāyaṇa), the bhā-chakra also represents the individual (animate/inanimate object). Thus everything that we perceive at least, is represented by the zodiac. This twelve petal lotus grows from the navel of Nārāyaṇa, and these points at 0° Aries, 0° Leo and 00 Sagittarius represent the Navel (also called Viṣṇu nābhi & Brahma nābhi at two different levels of time quantification) and symbolize the end/beginning. Thus, these points are called gaṇḍānta and the two nakṣatra pada adjoining each navel are called gaṇḍānta pada. These are (a) 0°0′ to 3°20’ Aries and 26°40′ to 30°0′ Pisces around the point 0°  Aries; (b) 0°0′ to 3°20’  Leo and 26°40′ to 30°00′ Cancer around the point 00   Leo &  (c) 0°0′ to 3°20’ Sagittarius and 26°40′ to 30°0′ Scorpio around the point 0°Sagittarius. With this emerged the concept of perfect harmony or trines (and the angle of 120°). Thus, the zodiac was divided into three types of signs as  movable, fixed and dual.

Four-fold division


The whole body of Nārāyaṇa is divided into four parts called Brahma, Viṣṇu, Śiva and Vāsudeva. These parts cannot really be differentiated from the whole and are complete in themselves like dividing infinity by four, we still get infinity as the result. Thus, Nārāyaṇa with Śrī Śaktī is called Viṣṇu and is of pure sattva guṇa; Nārāyaṇa with Bhū Śaktī is called Brahma and is of rajas guṇa; while Nārāyaṇa with Kāli Śaktī was called Śiva and is of Tamas guṇa. These three parts are full of nectar and are imperceptible. The fourth part of Nārāyaṇa is called Vāsudeva. This part is both perceptible (with three Śaktī i.e. Śrī-Śaktī, Bhū-Śaktī & Kāli (Nīla)-Śaktī and three guṇa’s intermingling) and imperceptible (with two Śaktī: Śrī-Śaktī & Bhū-Śaktī). As Vāsudeva, Nārāyaṇa sustains or maintains the Brahmāṇḍa. Thus, the zodiac when used for all material purposes would represent Vāsudeva8Hence, Vasudeva (or Krishna) shows the path for the individual soul to merge into Nārāyaṇa. The mantra for this Mokṣa / Nirvana / Emancipation has been provided in the Madhusudana Stotra. It is called Śrī Vishnu dvādasākṣarī – om namo bhagavate vāsudevāya and the signs would represent the three guṇa. All signs have all the three guṇa and only one dominates. Thus movable signs have a predominance of rajas guṇa, fixed signs of tamas guṇa and dual signs of sattva guṇa. Because of the predominant guṇa, the primary deities of the movable, fixed and dual signs were Brahma, Śiva and Viṣṇu respectively. However, at a later date, to differentiate these deities from the pure parts of Nārāyaṇa, the latter were also called Mahā-Viṣṇu, Param-Brahma and Sadāśiva respectively.

Trimūrti (The three chief deities)

trimurtiIn Vedic Astrology, the perceptible part of Śrī Vāsudeva and the three deities Viṣṇu, Brahma and Śiva becomes very relevant, by providing the perception for guidance of the individual soul. The daśā system for timing events / guiding individuals and using the three types of signs is called Nārāyaṇa daśā and its three types9Refer: Chapter titled “Order of Nārāyaṇa Dasa” of daśā are specifically meant for movable, fixed or dual sign in the ascendant for the three deities Brahma, Śiva or Viṣṇu respectively (See Fig). Hence, the Nārāyaṇa daśā gives the impact of the environment on the native while the Vimśottari daśā shows the native’s   reaction or experience in life. Without the Nārāyaṇa daśā, we really cannot say the direction in which the forces of nature are going to lead the native. The Vimśottari daśā, being an Udu daśā gives the state of mind / personal preparedness to deal with these directions.


Śaktī literally means strength or power and specifically indicates the strength to achieve purpose. The purpose of Viṣṇu is to preserve the individual and Śrī Śaktī is his power to do the same. The strength of the lord of the second house will represent the strength of Śrī Śaktī and from the second lord Viṣṇu (or Hari Yoga) is ascertained. Thus, the second house deals with food / eating which is necessary for survival or sustenance as well as resources, wealth for sustenance of everything. The lord of Lagna represents Bhū Śaktī and if strong with planets in quadrants, gives Brahma Yoga. Bhū Śaktī in one aspect is Sāvitrī whereby she provides the means for good health and long life and in the form of Sarasvatī she provides the power of knowledge, speech and intelligence. Similarly the lord of the seventh house represents Kāli Śaktī and Hara Yoga is formed that involves the seventh lord.  Hence the saying “Brahma gives longevity (Ayus), Viṣṇu gives wealth (Dhana) Śiva gives marriage etc (Kalyāṇa)”. The Vimśottari daśā is used to judge the state of mind / self of the native, as it is also necessary to determine the availability of the means to achieve the purpose. The variation in Śrī Śaktī or sattva guṇa is examined from Su-daśā (also simply called rāśi daśā by Parāśara) as it gives the level of prosperity while the variations in bhū Śaktī (Sāvitrī) is examined from Śūla daśā or any other Ayur daśā.

Divisional Charts

The rāśi (D1 chart), drekkāṇa (D3 chart), navāṁśa (D9 chart) and ṣaṣṭiāṁśa (D60 chart) are the most important divisional charts. Parāśara explains that the Drekkāṇa are ruled by Deva-ṛṣi Nārada, Maharṣi Agastya and Brahmarṣi Dūrvāsa for dual / fixed / movable drekkāṇa respectively. Similarly Movable, Fixed and Dual navāṁśa are presided over by Brahma, Śiva and Viṣṇu respectively. Now for example if a planet is placed in Pisces in both Rāśi and navāṁśa, it is stated to be vargottama (i.e. having acquired the best division of the sign) and connects the sattva guṇa of the sign to Śrī Viṣṇu the presiding deity of the navāṁśa. The daśā system when we examine guru yoga, mantra, dīkṣa, renunciation etc is called dṛg daśā.
Figure 2: Three-fold division
Hence, for a comprehensive examination of a chart the rāśi daśā’s, such as Nārāyaṇa daśā, su-daśā, śūla daśā and dṛg daśā and the nakṣatra daśā such as Vimśottari daśā should be examined. In this book, we are dealing with the Nārāyaṇa Daśā, and this preface aims to give the spiritual background behind its conception. In addition to explaining the procedure to calculate the Nārāyaṇa Daśā, its comprehensive usage has also been shown.

References   [ + ]

1. Provided in the Bhagavad Gītā with the commentary of Adi Śaṅkara.
2. OM is the cosmic syllable representing God
3. Nārāyaṇa is composed of two words ‘ nara’ meaning ‘ any body ‘ and ‘ āyana ‘ meaning ‘ goal ‘. Thus the composite word Nārāyaṇa means the ultimate goal of every body both living and non-living or mobile and immobile. In a more subtle sense it refers to the individual soul (microcosm) endeavoring to attain union (yoga) with the universal soul (macrocosm). Thus, Nārāyaṇa also means this universal soul or supreme personality of God.
4. The unmanifest is referred to as ‘maya’ or illusion, and in the Bhagavad Gita is called the Akṣara’ (syllable), immutable Brahma. Thus, if Nārāyaṇa is said to be even above this sound syllable which is the source of all creation, then Nārāyaṇa is also Parambrahman or Sadāśiva
5. Brahmāṇḍa: Brahma, the dimurge God evolved from the navel of Nārāyaṇa and ‘ Anda’ literally means the ‘egg. Thus Brahmanda refers to the hiraṇyagarbha (golden embryo – principle of cosmic evolution), whereby the universe was created. In fact ‘ All these worlds ‘ used in the prayer refers to the universe (‘ Virat ‘) composed of five elements (or rather fire states of matter/energy). These are the earth elements (solid), water element (liquids), air element (gases). Fire element (energy) and space element (ether).
6. Śaṅkara is referring to the Geo-centric view (used in Vedic Astrology) of the earth with the earth at the foci and the revolutions of the seven bodies (Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) causing seven Islands of concentric ellipses around it. This order of the planets from Moon to Saturn, when reckoned in the reverse, is the order of the horā’s of the day (i.e. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon). This also forms the basis for the reckoning of the weekday order as the 25th Hora gives the ruling planet of next day.
7. (Viṣṇu Aṣṭākṣarī), the eight letter mantra: om namo nārāyaṇāya
8. Hence, Vasudeva (or Krishna) shows the path for the individual soul to merge into Nārāyaṇa. The mantra for this Mokṣa / Nirvana / Emancipation has been provided in the Madhusudana Stotra. It is called Śrī Vishnu dvādasākṣarī – om namo bhagavate vāsudevāya
9. Refer: Chapter titled “Order of Nārāyaṇa Dasa”

Longevity related notes and the use of Utpanna, Adhana and Kshema Vimsottari dasa [Continued from Vimsottari Dasa #1]

Longevity related Notes On Vimsottari Dasa

Dasa Sesham[1]

Calculation of longevity should be done as per traditional tools. Separate Vimsottari dasa’s can be calculated from the fifth, fourth and eighth constellation from Janma Nakshatra[2] . These are called Utpanna dasa (5th Star), Kshema dasa (4th Star) and Adhana dasa (8th Star). Compare the ending dates of dasa’s under this to that of Janma Vimsottari (as determined in previous chapter). If the ending dates are close, then it can spell the end of life.


Determine the Utpanna, Kshema and Adhana dasa of Male born on 7 August 1963 at 9:15’ PM IST at 21N28’ 84E01’(Chart 2).
In Chart 2, the Janma Nakshatra is Satabhisaj (24) and the Kshema star (4th) is Revati (27) ruled by Mercury; the Utpanna star (5th) is Aswini (1) ruled by Ketu and the Adhana star (8th) is Rohini (4) ruled by Moon. The Nakshatra balance is 0.001157 and the balance of Dasa can be easily calculated from this.
Kshema dasa balance
Full period of Mercury dasa = 17 years.
Balance of Mercury dasa = 17 X 0.001157 = 0.019669 Years = 0 Year 0 Month 7 Days
Thus, Ending date (Mercury) = 1963-08-07 (Birth Date YYYY-MM-DD) (+) 0-00-07 (Add)
= 1963-08-14(YYYY-MM-DD) or1963 Aug 14
Utpanna Dasa Balance
Full period of Ketu dasa = 7 years.
Balance of Mercury dasa = 7 X 0.001157 = 0.008099 Years
= 0 Year 0 Month 3 Days
Thus, Ending date (Ketu) = 1963-08-07 (Birth Date YYYY-MM-DD) (+) 0-00-03 (Add)
= 1963-08-10(YYYY-MM-DD) or1963 Aug 10
Adhana Dasa Balance
Full period of Moon dasa = 10 years.
Balance of Moon dasa = 10 X 0.001157 = 0.01157 Years
= 0 Year 0 Month 4 Days
Thus, Ending date (Moon) = 1963-08-07 (Birth Date YYYY-MM-DD)
(+) 0-00-04 (Add)
= 1963-08-11(YYYY-MM-DD) or1963 Aug 11

Table2-1 :Kshema Dasa Table Starting Date Ending Date
Dasa Planet Period Age Y M D Y M D
4 Kshema Merc 0-0-7 0 1963 8 7 1963 8 14
5 Pratya Ketu 07 07 1963 8 14 1970 8 14
6 Sadha Ven 20 27 1970 8 14 1990 8 14
7 Vadha Sun 06 33 1990 8 14 1996 8 14
8 Mitra Moon 10 43 1996 8 14 2006 8 14
9 Ati-mitra Mars 07 50 2006 8 14 2013 8 14
1 Janma Rahu 18 68 2013 8 14 2031 8 14
2 Sampat Jup 16 84 2031 8 14 2047 8 14
3 Vipat Sat 19 103 2047 8 14 2066 8 14
Table2-2 :Utpanna Dasa Table Starting Date Ending Date
Dasa Planet Period Age Y M D Y M D
5 Pratya Ketu 0-0-3 0 1963 8 7 1963 8 10
6 Sadha Ven 20 20 1963 8 10 1983 8 10
7 Vadha Sun 06 26 1983 8 10 1989 8 10
8 Mitra Moon 10 36 1989 8 10 1999 8 10
9 Ati-mitra Mars 07 43 1999 8 10 2006 8 10
1 Janma Rahu 18 61 2006 8 10 2024 8 10
2 Sampat Jup 16 77 2024 8 10 2040 8 10
3 Vipat Sat 19 96 2040 8 10 2059 8 10
4 Kshema Merc 17 113 2059 8 10 2076 8 10
Table2-3 :Adhana Dasa Starting Date Ending Date
Dasa Planet Period Age Y M D Y M D
8 Mitra Moon 0-0-4 0 1963 8 7 1963 8 11
9 Ati-mitra Mars 07 7 1963 8 11 1970 8 11
1 Janma Rahu 18 25 1970 8 11 1988 8 11
2 Sampat Jup 16 41 1988 8 11 2004 8 11
3 Vipat Sat 19 60 2004 8 11 2023 8 11
4 Kshema Merc 17 77 2023 8 11 2040 8 11
5 Pratya Ketu 7 84 2040 8 11 2047 8 11
6 Sadha Ven 20 104 2047 8 11 2067 8 11
7 Vadha Sun 6 110 2067 8 11 2073 8 11

Notes: The Utpanna, Kshema and Adhana Dasa are always calculated on the basis of the longitude of the Moon, even if the Lagna is stronger than the Moon as in this case.
Comparing dasa The four Dasa (i.e. Janma, Kshema, Utpanna & Adhana) are compared carefully to determine similarity in the ending dates of dasa. If the ending dates are the same in at least two of the dasa, then ill-health, accidents, premature death and other evils can be anticipated.

1. Comparing Table 2-1 & Table 2-2, we find that the fifth dasa in both end in 2006 AD showing danger. Now compare the dasa length in both. The fifth dasa in Table 2-1 is of the Moon for 10 years while that in table 2-2 is of Mars for 7 years. Take the shorter period and we can narrow down the danger period from 1999 to 2006.

2. Comparing Table 2-1 & Table 2-3, we find that the first dasa in both end in 1970 AD showing danger. Now compare the dasa length in both. The first dasa in Table 2-1 is of the Ketu for 7 years while that in Table 2-3 is of Mars for 7 years. Take the shorter period and we can narrow down the danger period from 1963 to 1970. During this period the native had many close encounters when as a baby he fell into a dam and was rescued by the timely intervention of his grandmother who dived in after him. Later in February 1969 he was badly mauled by a dog and had to undergo treatment for a few months. These incidents are represented by the planets having the Kshema Dasa [Ketu in a constellation of Venus clearly indicates danger from dogs, and specifically feminine-bitch) and Adhana dasa (Mars in a constellation of Moon shows the danger of accidents (Mars) in water (Moon) and the person who saves is seen from the house where 7th house occupied by Mars is the fourth (Mother/Aunt) from the fourth house (Mother) indicating grandmother].

3. Comparing Table 2-2 & Table 2-3, we find that the seventh dasa in both end in 2040 AD indicating danger or premature death. Now compare the dasa length in both. The seventh dasa in Table 2-2 is of the Jupiter for 16 years while that in Table 2-3 is of Mercury for 17 years. Take the shorter period and we can narrow down the danger period from 2024 to 2040. In this manner the dangerous periods should be determined and after calculating the longevity, the death inflicting dasa can be determined.
Death inflicting Dasa
1) The Dasa Sesham can cause death as all dasa tend to be evil towards their end. If the Sesham coincides for Utpanna, Adhana, Kshema or Janma Vimsottari dasa, then it can cause death.
2) The Janma dasa (First Vimsottari dasa) can cause death for Balarishtha[3] Jataka. The Vipat dasa (Third Vimsottari dasa) can cause death for Yogarishtha[4] and Alpa Ayus[5] Jataka[6]. The Pratya dasa (Fifth Vimsottari dasa) can cause death for Madhya Ayus[7] Jataka. The Vadha dasa (Seventh Vimsottari dasa) can cause death for Poorna Ayus[8] Jataka.
3) The dasa of the lord of the sixth house can bring wailing at home, especially in the antardasa of the lord of the eighth house when the death of the native himself can occur[9] . Similarly, dasa of Lord of eighth and antardasa of lord of the sixth can give death.
4) The stronger of the Lords of the 2nd or 8th house is called Rudra and it’s dasa or association can cause death of the native[10]. Similarly, the Rudra for parents are determined from the Sun or Venus (for Father) and Moon or Mars (for Mother) .
5) The dasa of a planet in Rasi-Sandhi (especially Gandanta) can bring sorrow and disease or even death. If it is in the last degree of the sign, then its dasa can produce death[11] .
6) Niryana Dasa[12] :For day birth, add the longitudes of the Sun and Saturn whereas for night birth add the longitudes of Rahu and Moon. The point arrived at by the sum of the longitudes will be in some constellation. The dasa of the lord of this constellation and antardasa indicated by the degree of the longitude sum can also determine death.
7) Gulika Dasa: The dasa/antardasa of the planets indicated by the longitude of Gulika in a constellation or that of planets associated with it can be death inflicting and harmful. The body can develop or be afflicted by poisonous substances.


Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore was born on the 7th May 1861 at 2:51’ AM LMT at 22N40’ Lat & 88E30’ Long on Krishna Paksha Trayodasi (ruled by Jupiter) in the Vedic month of Chaitra.
Rabindranath Tagore was a great worshipper of Vishnu and perhaps, the greatest poets of his time. The Lagna has the Moon in it, and any computation will clearly bring out the importance of the Moon in initiating the Vimsottari Dasa. The Vimsottari dasa starting dates (from Moon)are as under:
Merc 1856-06-02 ; Ketu 1873-06-02 ; Venus 1880-06-02 ; Sun 1900-06-03 ; Moon 1906-06-03 ; Mars 1916-06-03 ; Rahu 1923-06-03 ; Jup 1941-06-03
It would be very difficult to explain the death of Rabindranath Tagore in Jupiter Dasa Jupiter antardasa, especially when Jupiter is the lord of Lagna and is also exalted in the ninth from Arudha Lagna. However Gulika is in Visakha Nakshatra ruled by Jupiter and hence Jupiter shall give the results of Gulika in its initial period. This resulted in death.
4. The dasa of the planets associated with the second and seventh house can also be death inflicting.
5. Divisional Charts: The death of the native can be studied form the Rasi and Trimsamsa whereas that of other relatives are to be seen from the other divisional charts. Parasara explains these as Drekkana (D-3) for co-born, Saptamsa (D-7) for children, Navamsa (D-9) for spouse, Dasamsa (D-10) for those related in the profession, Dwadasamsa (D-12) for Parents and elders, Vimsamsa (D-20) for Guru’s and Sisya (Upasana), Chaturvimsamsa (D-24) for teachers and students (Siddhi) and so on.


Q1: Draw the Utpanna, Kshema and Adhana Dasa in your own chart and indicate the evil periods.
Q2: What is the reason for calculating these three types of Vimsottari Dasa based on the longitude of the Moon instead of Lagna?
Q3: Determine the period of death of at least two persons related to you (in any manner) using divisional charts.
Q4: Why are planets associated with the 2nd/7th houses death inflictors? Show at least one case where this has proved to be correct. What remedy does Parasara prescribe for this position or ownership of planets?
Q5: What is the importance of the Moon in averting Balarishta? What are the ages of Balarishta, Yogarishta, Alpa Ayus, Madhya Ayus and Poorna Ayus?
Q6:Case Study: Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Born on 14 November 1889; 11:00’PM LMT Allahabad (25N27’ 81E51’). Explain the the following events:
1. death of his wife (28 Feb 1936); [Sun-Merc] 2. death of Father (6 Feb 1931), [Venus-Merc] 3. Marriage (8 Feb, 1916); [Venus-Sun] 4. Birth of Daughter (19 Nov, 1917) when he was in jail; [Venus-Moon] 5. His death 27 May 1964 [Rahu-Merc] 6. His illness that started in Feb 1963 [Rahu-Sat] Q7: Case Study: female born 23 January 1950, 6:15’ AM Ghaziabad, India. Husband died in Venus-Rahu-Venus Vimsottari Dasa-Antar-Pratyantar. Explain why?
[1] Sesham means ending or finishing
(JP 18-35)
[3] Balarishtha refers to infantile death (0 to 12 years). If this is destined, then the Janma dasa itself can cause death.
[4] Yogarishtha refers to teenage death around 12 to 20 years age. If this is destined, then the Vipat or third dasa can cause death.
[5] Alpa Ayus indicates premature death within 36 years. If a few other life determining factors are strong, then this can be within 40 years.
[6] Parasara

[7] Madhya Ayus refers to middle life where the longevity is from 36 to 72 years. Another classification is 40 to 80 years.
[8] Poorna Ayus or full life refers to the longevity in the range of 72 to 108 years. Another classification is 80 to 120 years. For more details refer to my translation of Jaimini’s Upadesa Sutra.
(JP 18-25)
(JP 18-38) The reference is to Sthira Karaka or fixed significators that are used in Ayur dasa or longevity estimation.
(JP 18-27)
[12] This is different from the Niryana Shoola Dasa and should not be mistaken. Niryana dasa has been defined as the death inflicting period of the Vimsottari dasa (or other Udu dasa) by the following Sloka in Jataka Parijata (JP 18-36):


Shoola Dasa is an Ayur (Longevity) Dasa meant for determining the period of death of the self, spouse and other relations. It is amongst the most accurate dasa for longevity and health and can be used to accurately time the occurance of all events pertaining to the state of one’s physical body. Since 75% of our bodies are made up of fluids and water, the Moon becomes the most important planet for matters of health and longevity. Thus, for good health and longevity, Lord Shiva is worshipped on Mondays with the Mritunjaya mantra


The Shoola Dasa is named after the Trishula or Three headed spear carried by Lord Shiva in the form of Rudra or Maheswara.

The Shoola Dasa is a fixed period Dasa and will depend on the nature of animal etc. you are studying. Either (a) The period of gestation is equal to ONE ANTARDASA OR (b) the period of FULL LIFE (Purna Ayus) is equally divided by 12 for the dasa of the 12 signs and equally divided by 144 for each antardasa.
Example A: Determine the Shoola dasa periods for Human births. We know that the period of conception & pregnancy (gestation) is 9 months. Thus, each Shoola ANTARDASA equals 9 Months. Each Shoola Dasa is 9 Years (12×9 Months= 108 Months =9 Years). Purna Ayus of this Dasa is 108 years (144x9months =1296 Months= 108 years).
Example B: The US president is elected for a period of 4 years. This becomes the Purna Ayus of the Presidency and his ability to sustain during the 4 years will be seen from the Shoola Dasa of the swearing-in Chart. Since the Purna Ayus (Full Life) is for 4 years=48 Months, Each Shoola Dasa for the US Presidency is for 4 Months (48Months /12 =4 Months). Each Antardasa is for 10 Days (4 Months/12 = 120 Days/12 = 10 Days).

The Shoola Dasa starts from the Lagna or the 7th house whichever is stronger. Similarly for other relations. The stronger between the 3rd & 9th will start the shoola Dasa for Father, Paternal relatives & younger co-borns. The stronger between the 4th & 10th will start the shoola Dasa for Mother, Maternal relatives etc. The stronger between the 5th & 11th will start the shoola Dasa for Children, (Maharishi Jaimini adds younger sisters out here due to the pada of the third) & Elder co-borns. The stronger between the 6th & 12th will start the shoola Dasa for servants, pets etc. In this manner the Shoola Dasa for all can be determined.

The Shoola Dasa are always regular and zodiacal. This is because Saturn is the natural Ayushkaraka (significator for longevity) and the Jaimini Maharishi teaches “Sanau UcheTyeke”.

The stronger between the 2nd & 8th Lord is called the Rudra. If the weaker is more afflicted, then it becomes the Rudra. The sign occupied by the Rudra is called Shoola and its trines are called Trishula. Since Venus & Mars are the Lords of the natural 2nd (Taurus) and 8th (Scorpio) houses of the zodiac, if they are aspected/conjoined by the Moon (Significator of the mind/health) generate Rudra Yoga.

Death is to occur in the TriShoola, Rudra Yoga or other malefic yoga. Death can also occur in the sign of the Arudha Lagna (for self and other Arudha for other relations). Death can also occur in the signs aspecting the third (place of death) from Arudha Lagna. Other details from Maharishi Jaimini’s Upadesa Sutra.

Example: Mahatma Gandhi

Shoola dasa (troubles and death):
Maha Dasas:
Li: 1869-10-02 (7:31:00 am) – 1878-10-02 (2:41:40 pm)
Sc: 1878-10-02 (2:41:40 pm) – 1887-10-02 (10:10:13 pm)
Sg: 1887-10-02 (10:10:13 pm) – 1896-10-02 (5:32:43 am)
Cp: 1896-10-02 (5:32:43 am) – 1905-10-03 (12:49:26 pm)
Aq: 1905-10-03 (12:49:26 pm) – 1914-10-03 (8:11:30 pm)
Pi: 1914-10-03 (8:11:30 pm) – 1923-10-04 (3:42:20 am)
Ar: 1923-10-04 (3:42:20 am) – 1932-10-03 (10:55:15 am)
Ta: 1932-10-03 (10:55:15 am) – 1941-10-03 (6:19:54 pm)
Ge: 1941-10-03 (6:19:54 pm) – 1950-10-04 (1:41:22 am)
Cn: 1950-10-04 (1:41:22 am) – 1959-10-04 (9:03:30 am)
Le: 1959-10-04 (9:03:30 am) – 1968-10-03 (4:25:46 pm)
Vi: 1968-10-03 (4:25:46 pm) – 1977-10-03 (11:44:03 pm)

Ge MD: Antardasas in this MD:
Sg: 1941-10-03 (6:19:54 pm) – 1942-07-02 (4:35:12 pm)
Cp: 1942-07-02 (4:35:12 pm) – 1943-03-31 (6:20:43 pm)
Aq: 1943-03-31 (6:20:43 pm) – 1944-01-01 (5:01:27 pm)
Pi: 1944-01-01 (5:01:27 pm) – 1944-10-03 (12:47:11 pm)
Ar: 1944-10-03 (12:47:11 pm) – 1945-07-02 (11:10:38 am)
Ta: 1945-07-02 (11:10:38 am) – 1946-03-31 (12:46:32 pm)
Ge: 1946-03-31 (12:46:32 pm) – 1947-01-01 (11:25:28 am)
Cn: 1947-01-01 (11:25:28 am) – 1947-10-04 (7:18:50 am)
Le: 1947-10-04 (7:18:50 am) – 1948-07-02 (5:33:54 am)
Vi: 1948-07-02 (5:33:54 am) – 1949-03-31 (7:04:03 am)
Li: 1949-03-31 (7:04:03 am) – 1950-01-01 (6:01:42 am)
Sc: 1950-01-01 (6:01:42 am) – 1950-10-04 (1:41:22 am)

In the chart of Mahatma Gandhi, the arudha lagna is in Cancer and the third from it is Virgo (Garden) with the Sun (light fire arm) in it. Jaimini teaches that the third from the AL is to be seen for the place of death. Virgo is aspected by Gemini and is likely to give death as it is the first dasa in the long-life compartment. The shoola dasa indicates Rudra or the lagna of the person who shall come to kill the native.

On the 30 January 1948 Mahatma Gandhi was shot to death at point blank range by Nathuram Godse. The lagna of Nathuram was Gemini!! See how the shoola dasa showed the lagna of the person who is coming to kill.

The shoola antardasa has to be of a dusthana from the dasa rasi and should have ample factors to indicate the death. leo is in the third from gemini and is also owned by the sun which is in the third from Arudha Lagna.

A study of the finest udu dasa system taught by Parasara and other authors of classical jyotish literature. Let us pray to Sarasvati with the following Sarasvati Gāyatri Mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala-1.Hymn-3.Mantra-10) before starting the lesson.
पावका नः सरस्वती वाजेभिर्वाजिनीवती। यज्ञं वष्टु धीया वसुः॥
pāvakā naḥ sarasvatī vājebhirvājinīvatī| yajñaṁ vaṣṭu dhīyā vasuḥ||

Word meanings

Sarasvatī: derived from ‘Sarasah’ meaning (a) full of Rasa or nectar (Sa+Rasa). There are seven Rasa’s which lead to the physical creation of all beings. These seven Rasa are the Lords of the saptāṁśa (one-seventh division) of a sign. Thus, Sarasvatī is the mother of all creation and is also referred to as BHU Devi or the Earth Mother. (b) Commendable enlightening speech borne from perfect knowledge and truthful countenance. Thus, Sarasvatī is the giver of such exemplary speech [arising from truthful countenance and knowledge (of all arts, crafts and sciences)].
Pāvaka: Pure, clear, bright and shining like Agni (fire); illuminating; n. Pavakā illuminator.

The Best Udu Daśā

दशाबहुविधास्तासु मुख्या विंशोत्तरी मता।
कैश्चिदष्टोत्तरी कैश्चित्‌ कथिता षोडशोत्तरी॥ ३॥
daśābahuvidhāstāsu mukhyā viṁśottarī matā |
kaiścidaṣṭottarī kaiścit kathitā ṣoḍaśottarī || 3||
Parāśara teaches that vimśottari is the foremost Udu Daśā because in Kaliyuga[1] the maximum period of the vimśottari daśā system (120 years) is equal to the Pūrṇa Āyus (Full longevity: 120 years) of the human being.
विंशोत्तरशतं पूर्णमायुः पूर्वमुदाहृतम्‌।
कलै विंशोत्तरी तस्माद्‌ दशा मुख्या द्विजोत्तम॥ १४॥
viṁśottaraśataṁ pūrṇamāyuḥ pūrvamudāhṛtam |
kalai viṁśottarī tasmād daśā mukhyā dvijottama || BPHS 14||
This complete longevity of 120 years is represented by 120 degrees of the zodiac based on the Time-space equation from Manu [2] Smṛti [3] whereby one day of the Deva is equal to a year in the life of human beings. By the term Deva (derived from Diva [4]) the Sun is referred to and its average daily motion of one degree in the zodiac. Thus 120 human /earth years would correspond to 120 degrees in the zodiac. There are three Brahma Nābhi [5] in the zodiac at zero degree Aries, Leo and Sagittarius. These navels are 120 degrees apart. These navel represent the end or a new beginning and is conceptualized as Gaṇḍānta. Their separation of 120 degree is the longevity span of the human being. There are other dictums which refer to other transits of the Sun as the 21/2 Degree transit. However, these shall refer to beings other than human or for other purposes.
Lesson #01: The first step in vimśottari daśā is to determine the Param Āyus (maximum longevity) of any body, both animate and inanimate.

The angular span of 120 degrees is divided into nine mansions of the Moon called Nakṣatra or simply constellation. Each Nakṣatra has an angular span of 13o20’ (or 800’) and is composed of four parts called Pada. Each Pada, being one-fourth of a constellation is 3°20′ (or 200’). The first Nakṣatra is Aswini which is reckoned from zero degree Aries and spans the range 0°–13°20’ Aries. The second Nakṣatra starts from 13°20’ Aries and extends till 26°40’ Aries. In this manner nine Nakṣatra cover the span of 120° from 0° Aries to 30° Cancer. Similarly two other sets of nine-Nakṣatra span the space from 0° Leo to 30° Scorpio and 0° Sagittarius to 30° Pisces respectively (Fig1-1). The Navagraha in the order of Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rāhu, Jupiter, Saturn & Mercury are the lords of the nine constellation as reckoned from Aswini. This order of planets also determines the lordship for the other two complimentary sets of nine constellation (Table 1-1).

Daśā Period

Daśā periods have been spelt out by Parāśara [6] for the planets as Sun – 6 years, Moon – 10 years, Mars – 7 years, Rāhu – 18 years, Jupiter – 16 years, Saturn – 19 years, Mercury – 17 years, Ketu – 7 years and Venus – 20 years. These have also been indicated in the Table 1-1.

Order of Daśā

The daśā follows a definite sequence in the regular order of the constellations. The Daśā are furnished by the planets owning the constellations. For example, if the first daśā is reckoned from Bharaṇī (2), then the first daśā shall be initiated from Venus, the lord of Bharaṇī. The order of the constellations are Bharaṇī (2) Krittikā (3) Rohiṇī (4) Mṛgāśiras (5) Ārdrā (6) Punarvasu (7) Puṣyā (8) Aśleṣā (9) Maghā (10) etc. Thus, the order of the Daśā shall be Venus (Bharaṇī), Sun (Krittikā), Moon (Rohiṇī), Mars (Mṛgāśiras), Rāhu (Ārdrā), Jupiter (Punarvasu), Saturn (Puṣyā), Mercury (Aśleṣā) and Ketu (Maghā).


Parāśara has advised the use of this vimśottari daśā for all purposes as it is the best Udu daśā.
कृष्णपक्षे दिवा जन्म शुक्लपक्षे तथा निशि।
तदा ह्यष्टोत्तरी चिन्त्या फलार्थञ्च विशेषतः॥ २३॥
kṛṣṇapakṣe divā janma śuklapakṣe tathā niśi |
tadā hyaṣṭottarī cintyā phalārthañca viśeṣataḥ || 23||
Whereas he has given a very specific rule (Criteria-1) for the use of aṣṭottari Daśā (108 years) by stating[7]4 that Rāhu in a quadrant or trine from the Lord of Lagna determines the applicability of aṣṭottari daśā, subsequently he gives the following advise (Criteria-2):

“If birth is at day in kṛṣṇa pakṣa[8] or at night in śukla pakṣa[9], the use of aṣṭottari daśā is advised.” If this advice is to be taken at face value, then by implication the vimśottari daśā would apply only if birth is at night in kṛṣṇa pakṣa or at day in śukla pakṣa. Considering Criteria-1 & 2 together, aṣṭottari daśā will be applicable in about 25% charts. Thus, vimśottari daśā is applicable in about 75% birth charts[10]. Summing up, check the following:-
1) Whether Rāhu is placed in a Kendra or Trikoṇa from Pāka Lagna (i.e. the sign occupied by the Lord of Lagna).
2) Whether birth at day time is in kṛṣṇa pakṣa, OR Whether birth at night time is in śukla pakṣa.
3) If both of (1) or (2) above is applicable, then use aṣṭottari daśā, else apply vimśottari daśā.

Determination of Starting Daśā

It has become a common practice to initiate the vimśottari daśā from the constellation occupied by the Moon. However specific rules exist for determining the starting constellation. Determine the following five constellations: –
(i) Lagna Nakṣatra: the constellation, which houses the rising degree of the ascendant.
(ii) Janma Nakṣatra: the constellation, which is occupied by the Moon in the horoscope (Birth chart).
(iii) Name Nakṣatra: the constellation/Pada indicated by the first letter in the name of the person (refer Table – at Appendix I).
(iv) Praśna Nakṣatra: the constellation occupied by the Moon at the time of query or examination of a chart, and,
(v) Utpanna[11] Nakṣatra[12]: the fifth constellation counted from the constellation occupied by the Moon in the birth chart.

Lesson # 2:
1. stronger amongst Name Nakṣatra and Praśna Nakṣatra is used to determine the daśā related to a horary (Praśna) chart, and
2. the stronger amongst Lagna Nakṣatra, Janma Nakṣatra and the Utpanna Nakṣatra is used to determine the daśā’ s for natal chart (horoscope).
Although there maybe many methods to determine the relative strength of constellation, a few rules are given here.
(i) Determine the number of planets in Kendra (quadrants) to the signs occupied by the constellation[13]7. Larger number of planets in quadrant shall determine the stronger.
(ii) If they are equal or if the constellations are in mutual quadrant, then the association or aspect of Jupiter, Mercury or Lord of the constellation is a source of strength[14].

Lesson # 3: Whenever in doubt prefer the Moon constellation in Manuśya Jātaka (horoscope/charts relating to human beings) as the Manas (Mind) signified by the Moon shall determine the fortune.

Lesson # 4: In case there are four or more planets in quadrant to Lagna, then Tara daśā (a modification of vimśottari daśā) shall apply.
In the case of Tara[15] daśā, the strongest planet in Kendra initiates the daśā, which is followed by other planets in the Kendra[16]. Thereafter planets in paṇapara[17] and Apoklimas[18] furnish the daśā. The daśā periods are the same as for vimśottari daśā.

Calculation of Daśā Balance
After having determined the strongest constellation that will initiate the vimśottari daśā, the next logical step is to determine the balance of daśā.
Step 1: Determine the exact longitude of the Lagna/Moon as the case maybe. (Say M)
Step 2: Expunge the longitude of the starting point of the constellation (Say N) from it. Thus we have (M-N) the progress in the constellation.
Step 3: Since the span of the constellation is 13°20′ or 800′, expunge the progress in the constellation determined from previous step from the span to determined balance of constellation to be covered i.e. 13o20′ – (M-N).
Step 4: the balance of daśā is obtained by multiplying the daśā period of the lord of the constellation with the ratio of balance of constellation to be covered (Step 3) and complete span
i.e. Daśā Balance = Daśā period X {13°20′ – (M-N)} / 13°20′
or, Daśā Balance = Daśā period X {1- [(M-N)/13°20′]}


Example 1 Let us determine the starting daśā, daśā balance and vimśottari Daśā of Male born on 12 November 1934 at 6:20′ PM IST at Lat: 20N30′, Long:85E50′, India. The birth chart as follows:-
Determination of Starting Daśā
(i) Lagna Nakṣatra: Rohiṇī (4) in Taurus.
(ii) Janma Nakṣatra: Uttara Āsāḍha (21) in Capricorn
(iii) Utpanna Nakṣatra: 5th from Janma Nakṣatra: Pūrva bhadra (25) in Aquarius.
Seven planets are placed in quadrant to the Moon sign and this is the strongest. Thus the Moon shall determine the starting constellation as Uttar Sadha (21). The lord of this constellation is the Sun, which shall furnish the first daśā at birth.
Calculation Daśā Balance.
Daśā Period of Sun = 6 Years
Longitude of Moon = 10s 5° 51′ 13.00″= 305° 51’13″(M)
Longitude of starting point of Uttara Āsāḍha = 9s 26° 40’=296° 40′ (N)
Thus, balance of daśā = Daśā period ´ { 1- [(M-N)/ 13°20′] }
= 6 X {1- [(305° 51’13” – 296°40′)/13°20′]}
= 6 X {1- [9011’13″/13°20′]}
= 6 X {1- [33073”/48000”]}
= 6 X 0.31098[19] = 1.865875
= 1 Year 10 Months 11 Days 17hr-9min-36sec.
Thus the vimśottari daśā ending date of the Chart 1 is as follows:
The starting date of the Moon Daśā is 24 September 1937 and starting time of 11-29′-36″ AM should be noted separately for drawing the Daśā Praveśa Chakra (Daśā Initiation Chart).
vimśottari Daśā table of Chart1

Starting Date Ending Date
Dasa Planet Period Y M D Y M D
1 Janma Sun 1-10-11 1936 11 12 1937 9 24
2 Sampat Moon 10 1937 9 24 1947 9 24
3 Vipat Mars 7 1947 9 24 1954 9 24
4 Kshema Rāhu 18 1954 9 24 1972 9 24
5 Pratya Jup 16 1972 9 24 1988 9 24
6 Sadha Sat 19 1988 9 24 2007 9 24
7 Vadha Merc 17 2007 9 24 2024 9 24
8 Mitra Ketu 7 2024 9 24 2031 9 24
9 Ati-mitra Ven 20 2031 9 24 2054 9 24

Example 2

Determine the daśā for Male born on 7 August 1963 at 9:15’ AM IST at Lat:21N28’ Long:84E01’, India.
The Rasi Chart is as follows:
Date of Birth: August 7, 1963; Time of Birth: 9:15:00 pm (21N28 84E01′)
In Chart 2, all four quadrants are occupied by four planets. Normally the conjunction of four or more planets in a Kendra gives Pravrajya (renunciation) Yoga and in this case, they are in separate signs and as per Lesson#4, Tara Daśā is applicable in the chart.
Step 1: Determination of the strongest planet
The four planets in quadrants are Jupiter, Rāhu, Ketu and Mars. The nodes Rāhu & Ketu are exalted in Gemini & Sagittarius respectively and are stronger than Jupiter in own sign (Pisces) or Mars in an inimical sign. Both nodes are equally aspected as per Rāśi dṛṣṭi by Jupiter and are not conjoined any planets. In such a scenario we can use bhāva bala[20] wherein the tenth house has a total strength of 10.53 Rupa and the fourth house has 9.37 Rupa. Thus Ketu is the strongest planet.
Step 2: Order of Daśā
The order of the daśā is based on Kendrādi daśā. The planets in Kendra furnish the initial daśā’s on the basis of their strengths. This is followed by the daśā of planets in paṇapara & then Apoklimas. Thus the order of Daśā for Chart 2 is as follows:-
Ketu, Rāhu, Jupiter, Mars, (Kendra)
Sun, Venus, Saturn (paṇapara),
Mercury, Moon (Apoklimas).
NOTE: This is the beginning of undoing the fixed concepts that many of you may have developed and in trying to make the mind more flexible to think. However, I will end this PART LESSON on vimśottari Daśā with the words that all the Daśā function simultaneously (which includes the various types of vimśottari). It is only a question of dominance of one over the other.

[1] Kaliyuga refers to one of the four eon’s which is the present Age of Iron. It started with the disappearance of Bhagavan Sri Kṛṣṇa in 3102 B.C.
[2] One of the fourteen sons of Brahma in one life of Brahma and the progenitor(s) of the Human race.
[3] Vedic Literature can be broadly classified as the Smriti and Sruti. Sruti means that which was heard (by the Maharishi’s) and is the voice of God. These include the Veda etc. Smriti means that which is remembered and can be commented or generally adapted.
[4] Diva means light and hence Deva is a giver of light of knowledge or enlightenment or a giver of energy. The Sun is the source of all energy in the solar system. Thus, it is not only the Deva, but also the Ātmakāraka or soul personified.
[5] navel of Brahma signifying a new beginning
[8] kṛṣṇa means dark; pakṣa means fortnight. Thus kṛṣṇa pakṣa means Dark fortnight or waning phase of Moon.
[9] śukla means bright; pakṣa means fortnight. Thus śukla pakṣa means Bright fortnight/waxing phase.
[10] Let us see the Mathematics. If we use the pakṣa Criteria, then 50% are for vimśottari and the other for 50% aṣṭottari. Now, for aṣṭottari the second criteria is not in EXCLUSION, but in INCLUSION. Thus, out of the 50%, another half (Kendra + Kona=6 signs out of 12) shall be excluded as Rāhu will not be in Kendra/Kona to Pāka Lagna. Now 50% of 50% is 25% applicable for vimśottari daśā.
[11] Kṣema is the 4th Star, Ādhana is the 8th Star and Utpanna is the 5th Star/ Nakṣatra as reckoned from the Nakṣatra occupied by the Moon.
[12] The Moon’s longitude is used for calculating the daśā balance as these are only relative positions of the Nakṣatra from their overlord – the Moon.
[13] Constellations could span over two signs and the position of the Lagna or Moon should be the deciding factor about the sign being referred to. For example if the Constellation is Punarvasu (Gemini 20o to Cancer 3020’), and if the Moon is in Cancer 20, then the sign for checking planets in quadrants is Cancer.
[14] Similar to the second source of strength given by Jaimini and later explained by Varāhamihira (Bṛhat Jātaka).
[15] Tara is the spouse of Jupiter (Bṛhaspati) who is the Guru of vimśottari daśā. That is why the periods of the Sun & Moon are equal to the period of Jupiter {i.e. Sun (6) +Moon (10) = Jupiter (16)}. On the other hand Venus (Śukrācārya) is the Guru of Aṣṭottari daśā as the periods of the Sun (6) and Moon (15) equal the period of Venus (21) in Aṣṭottari daśā.
[16] Kendra are the Cadent houses i.e. the 1st, 4th, 7th & 10th house.
[17] Paṇapara are the Succeedent houses i.e. the 2nd, 5th, 8th & 11th houses.
[18] Apoklimas are the precedent houses i.e. the 12th, 3rd, 6th & 9th houses.
[19] This ratio is called Nakṣatra Balance
[20] Refer to Graha & Bhāva Bala by Dr B V Raman. Although some would suggest Graha Bala instead of Bhāva Bala, this cannot be computed for the nodes

Presented at ACVA Tenth International Symposium on Vedic Astrology, 2003; Venue: Phoenix Room, Radisson Poco Diablo Resort, Sedona, AZ; Date: Sunday – November 16, 2003 ; Time: 11:00 AM – 12:30 PM
Naisargika Dasha is the natural growth and decay of the body. This was one of the two dasa used by Varahamihira (other was Mula dasa).

The tree, which moves some to tears of joy, is in the eyes of others only a green thing that stands in the way. Some see nature all ridicule and deformity . . . and some scarce see nature at all. But to the eyes of the man of imagination, nature is imagination itself.William Blake

Naisargika means natural and dasa refers to the state of a being at any point of time. Naisargika dasa is based on the observation of nature and life process of human beings and indicates the natural growth process of a being starting with its birth and physical growth to maturity. Thereafter the mature state is retained and the superior beings (all creatures) enjoy the bounties of nature and all that the world has to offer. The process of decay culminating in death follows.


Dasa order

Kalyanavarma [Saravali sloka 41-21]

kramaso sadhaparigraha isto naisargikascaiva||
Translation: The Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Sun, Saturn and Lagna, in that order furnish the periods of the Naisargika dasa.

Seven or eight stages have been identified in this natural process. Let us examine these for the human being. These are like the Seven Stages of Man. The reader will appreciate that it is the Hindu scholars (Varahamihira) who had the Seven Ages of Man while the Greeks (Yavana) recommended Eight Ages.
However, Hesoid used the Five Ages of Man while Ovid used Four Ages of Man1 But these Ages are like the Yuga periods and do not refer to the stages of human life. So they must not be mixed with the Seven/Eight Stages.

1. Baby : Moon
Infancy; The baby is totally dependent on the mother who is the focus, life support, and the very objective of being. The baby learns to use its limbs and the highest development and growth of the brain occurs during this stage. Mother is represented by the Moon.
2.Child : Mars
The growth of the physical body and strength is the highest during this period. The bones begin to harden. The focus during this stage is to become physically independent. Mars symbolizes this stage of growth. Being a perfect brahmachary (celibate), Mars ensures that the thoughts of sexuality are not to enter the mind.
3. Juvenile : Mercury
Unbridled freedom is enjoyed and joyous abandon define this stage. The need for learning the ways of the society and taming the naughty kid is the focus as learning begins. Mercury symbolizes this stage. Mercury is a eunuch and this state lasts till puberty.
4. Youth : Venus
Adolescence, post pubescent period; With puberty starts the series of chemical and hormonal changes that cause the body to develop sexual features. The ‘opposite sex’ becomes the focus of this stage. Venus symbolizes this stage. In the earlier stages there is learning as Venus is the daitya guru and teaches the knowledge necessary for survival in this material world. Mundane subjects and all knowledge focused on being able to earn a living come in this category. In the later stage, this matures into marriage and parenthood. However, the children are still babies or very young and the spouse is still very physically attractive. Physicality dominates the thinking and wisdom is yet to dawn. Physical growth is completed during this stage.
5. Adult : Jupiter
Children have become physically independent (i.e. have learnt toilet habits, walking, brushing etc.) and need some support in the form of learning the homework they bring from school. The physical attraction towards spouse decreases as the respect for sharing and emotional support increases. Relationships become more than just skin deep. This is the stage of the dawn of wisdom and is symbolized by Jupiter. Physical growth was completed and the stage marks the sustenance of the developed body.
6. Elder : Sun
The children have grown and flown the nest. Spouse maybe there but the relationship has gone far beyond the physical level and there has been and continues to been a lot of soul searching. This stage marks the beginning of the decay of the body as the frown begins to show. The individual gradually becomes more and more lonely and realizes that the definition of family cannot be limited to the four walls of a house. Thoughts of social contribution are foremost. The Sun symbolizes this stage.
7. Old : Saturn
The body fails to replace the old cells with as much vigor as it did in the ‘good old days’. Politics, power and corruption tend to leave a bad taste as you recall that the society at large was much better and definitely more innocent in the ‘good old days’. In reality you were too self-focused to have realized that the society was full of the same, or maybe more evils in the ‘good old days’ and due the poor communication systems, no one got to know anything. Loneliness is the order of the day and your children, grand children or maybe a few more generations are too busy to find the time for you. All sorts of illnesses begin to grip the body. Mobility reduces and rigidity seems to creep into every joint. The spouse is no longer alive and even if she is in body, is at best, just a very good friend. Saturn the old, symbolizes this stage. You begin to appreciate the holy books and the wisdom of the sages.
8. Very Old : Lagna/Nodes
With on leg in the grave, you have become very dependant, and you wait for the last day when the body shall cease to move. The stage of fear is gone. This stage is symbolized by the lagna as none of the planets (having a body) can symbolize this stage where the body is of not much consequence.

In view of the foregoing, both Kalyan Verma and Varahamihira state that the order of the dasa of the planets in the natural (naisargika) scheme is (1) Moon, (2) Mars, (3) Mercury, (4) Venus, (5) Jupiter, (6) Sun, and (7) Saturn [and maybe (8) Lagna]. Most Vedic astrologers have objected to this eighth stage on the grounds that this is really the same as old age. This issue needs to be examined and we feel that the use of seven planets is correct as the lagna cannot indicate the physical body as it is only a mathematical point in the eastern horizon whereas the remaining seven planets symbolize the physical body.

Planetary periods

Vaidyanatha Diksita [Jatakaparijata sloka V-2] nakhah sasi dvau navakam dhrtisca krtih khabana ravipurvakanam|
ima niruktah kramaso grahanam naisargike hyayusi varsasankhya||
Translation: 20, 1, 2, 9, 18, 20 and 50 are the periods in years for the planets in the order of Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn in the Naisargika (natural) longevity estimation (and dasa).
Varahamihira [Brhajjataka sloka 8-9] ekam dvau nava vimsatirdhrti krti pancasad esam
kramaccandrarenduja sukra jivadinakrid daiva karinam samah |
svaih svaih pusta phalani sarga janitaih paktirdasayah kramad ante
lagnadasa subheti yavana necchanti kecit tatha || 9||
Translation: 1, 2, 9, 20, 18, 20 and 50 years are the periods of the planets in the order of Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, the Sun and Saturn in the Naisargika dasa applicable to all creatures. If both the naisargika dasa and the normal [read Mula dasa] period indicate favorable results in their concurrent periods, then the same is sure to occur. Yavanacarya (Greek/foreign astrology inputs), opines that the dasa of Lagna shall be the last and produces prosperity. This [view of Yavanacarya] is objected to by some .

It is evident that both Vaidyanatha Diksita and Varahamihira have excluded the period of the Lagna in the mahadasa. Using only the seven planet periods, the dasa is shown for the scribe
Note that the age at which the naisargika dasha starts for all human beings is fixed.
Moon starts at 0, Mars 1, Mercury 3, Venus 12, Jupiter 32, Sun 50, Saturn 70.

Antardasa planets

Kalyan Varma defines2In the opening sloka of the Antardasa phala adhyaya (Chapter 42-1) the antardasa based on drsti. He allocates fractional weightage based on the aspect of the dasa lord.

  • We know that all planets have a full aspect on the seventh house. Hence, the minimum weight of 1/7th is given to planets in the seventh house from the dasa lord.
  • The next weaker aspect of all planets (¾ pada) is on the chaturasras (the 4th and 8th houses). Kalyan Varma gives the next higher weightage of 1/4th to planets in these houses.
  • The next weaker aspect of all planets (½ pada) is on the trikona (5th & 9th houses) and the weightage given for them is slightly more – 1/3rd for all planets in these houses.
  • Kalyan Varma has given a slightly more weightage of ½ for planets conjoining the dasa lord.
  • The next weaker aspect of all planets (¼ pada) is on the upachaya (excluding trika houses (6th & 11th) i.e. only on the 3rd and 10th house. The next higher weightage possible is 1 (whole) and this is given to planets in 2, 3, 6, 10, 11 & 12 houses. Some astrologers tend to ignore this on the ground that it is not specifically mentioned in Saravali.
  • Kalyan Varma opines3Saravali Ch.42-2 that if two or more planets tenant a sign, only the strongest amongst them will rule over the sub period. However, Satyacarya4Saravali 42-4 and others are clear that all the planets in a sign shall furnish the antardasa (instead of only strongest). Further, their order shall be based on strength with the strongest furnishing the first antardasa and so on.
  • A careful reading of the antardasa phala adhyaya of Saravali reveals that the dasa lord shall not have an antardasa, as it is the root indicating the overall trend of the period. The antardasa of the (other) planets will give results according to their nature5Saravali 42-2.

Order of antardasa

The planets in the kendra (1, 4, 7 & 10 houses), followed by those in the panapara (2, 5, 8 & 11 houses) and finally apoklimas (3, 6, 9, 12 houses) shall furnish the antardasa. Jaimini and Parasara spell out the standard rules for this.


The given rules must be used to first determine the stronger sign, and later the stronger planet in the signs must be found using the following rules. The rules given for the strength of signs are exclusive in that when comparing the strength of two signs, use the first rule. If that works, then no need to go further. If you find that the signs are still equally strong, then use the next rule and so on in the order given. This also applies to the planets.

Strength of signs

1. A sign with more planets is stronger.
2. The signs aspected or conjoined Jupiter, Mercury or the lord of the sign, is stronger.
3. If there are an equal number of planets/aspects, then the state of the planets in the signs must be ascertained i.e. exalted planets are stronger than mulatrikona, who are stronger than in own signs, etc. Debilitation signs are weakest.
4. If they are still equal in strength, then the natural strengths of the lords placed in Dual signs being stronger than fixed signs and fixed signs being stronger than movable signs is considered.
5. The sign lorded by atmakaraka is stronger.
6. If both lords have the same degrees, then the lord of a sign being in a different oddity than its own sign is stronger.
7. If the strengths are still equal, the degrees of the sign-lord must be delineated. One with higher degrees (as used in the Cara Karaka scheme) is stronger.
8. The sign that gives a higher dasa period is stronger.

Strength of planets

1. A planet placed in exaltation/mulatrikona or own sign is stronger in decreasing order.
2. The degrees of planet must be delineated. One with higher degrees (as used in the Cara Karaka scheme) is stronger.
3. If both have equal number of degrees, the one with higher minutes/seconds is stronger.

Calculation of antardasa

Add the fractional or whole weights of the six planets (excluding the dasa lord) and divide the dasa period by this sum. The result (called multiplier) should be multiplied by the individual fractional weights of the six planets to yield their antardasa periods6Saravali 42-5. Kalyan Varma elaborates the mathematics involved in using fractions. .

The Jagannath Hora software from Sri Jagannath Center has provided the calculations given in this paper. or
However, as software are changing with time, we recommend that the calculations be tried from two softwares and checked for accuracy before using.
As of 25 Jun, 2015 all available software miscalculate the order and sub-periods of the Naisargika Dasha. This is the primary reason why it is not popular. Else it is among the best dasha systems and the great Varahamihira, Kalyana Verma and a few others primarily used this.

References   [ + ]

2. In the opening sloka of the Antardasa phala adhyaya (Chapter 42-1)
3. Saravali Ch.42-2
4. Saravali 42-4
5. Saravali 42-2
6. Saravali 42-5. Kalyan Varma elaborates the mathematics involved in using fractions.

Introduction: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) was the 32nd President of the United Sates of America. FDR was born in Hyde Park, New York at “Springwood”, his family’s country estate. He was related to the President Theodore Roosevelt. His aristocracy is easily seen from the rising Leo ascendant aspected both by the lagna lord Sun and Ātmakāraka Jupiter (Rāśi dristi). A similar situation occurs in the Navāṁśa with lagna lord Mars and A.K. (Jupiter) placed in Lagna – a king is born.
Daśā applicability: There are 3 planets in quadrants to Ascendant and one (Mars) in quadrant to the Moon. The ascendant is stronger and Vimśottari daśā will have to be started from the cusp of the ascendant.

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Extract from the book ‘Vimshottari and Udu Däsa’ by Sanjay Rath

Dwisaptati Sama Dasa

The stellar universe is not so difficult of comprehension as the real actions of other people. …
…Marcel Proust

Dwisaptati Sama dasa is applicable in those charts where the lagna lord is in the 7th house, or the 7th lord is in lagna, or both.  The seventh house, like the lagna is a satya peetha[1] (hence Arudha pada of any house cannot be in the same house or in the seventh from it).  It indicates Hara[2] and can be either very benevolent as the Guru[3] in the sense of removing all obstacles in the spiritual path or very destructive like Rudra[4]. In both cases, Ketu is the significator.  It is the benevolent mokshakarka (i.e. granter of emancipation from the bondage of rebirth) as  well the destructive Rudra as per Vedavyasa.

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Pravrajika Shraddhaprana

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