Yashoda annd Swati’s question wrote:
Hare Rama Krsna, I was listening to Atri classes on Jagannatha drekkana , where Sanjayji talks about Agasthya is related to Bhramarishi ( chara rashis, 9th from sthir rashis Moon ), Doorvaasa is related to Maharishi (sthira rashis, 9th from dwija rashis Moon), Narada is connected to devarishi (dwija rashis, 9th from chara rashis Moon)
In contrast to this, in the narayana dasha book, it is given other way round, as Agasthya related to Maharishi (sthira rashis) and Doorvaasa is related to Bhramarishi (chara rashis). Can you please help me clear this confusion .
Let us get the linkages to get to the bottom of the subject at hand.

Defining the titles of a Rishi
There are many prefixes added to Rishi to indicate their status or working levels. Brahmarshi is the name *Brahma* prefixed to show the creative process which starts with AUM and Jagannath, and the three Rishi’s for this knowledge that we all have are Gotama, Atri and Bharadwaj, the givers of AUM for which they are called Brahmarsi. So not the creative process with A-U-M has become threefold having A, which is Brahma; U which is Vishnu and M which is Shiva. Maharsi are the ten seers of maharloka who are progenitors of all creation after a pralaya and when the creation beings again! So Maharsi is working as Brahmarsi at Maharloka.

There are so many prefixes that can create some confusion as you can see above. Therefore, following in the holy footsteps of Parasara [Vishnu Purana] we arrive at the three basic titles of Brahmarsi, Maharsi and Devarsi. Do you recall my witing about creation and the two words we learnt i.e. how A-U-M becomes U-M-A due to the reversal effect.

Look at the Rishi’s from the viewpoint of their creation and attachment –

(1) Agastya is known for his enormous creativity, having created the languages, scripts and incorporated the entire vedic literature into the south indian languages. Agastya was also known for his strength and he ate up and digested some rakshasa (demons) in a *tit for tat* kind of episode. He drank up the ocean when thirsty and fishes leapt around crying for life! None knows medicine better than him nor the ways to handle poison (Rk Veda etc).

(2) Durvasa is known for his terrible temper and thousands of disciples whom he taught and kept under strict disciplene – only Shiva could have done this. He is incarnated from the blessings of Shiva to Atri Muni. But Atri Muni is the giver of the AUM, and specifically the middle syllable U in the order of Gotama, Atri, Bharadvaja.

(3) Devarsi narada is a son of *Brahma* (so if we take birth as the factor) then some will argue that he should becalled Brahmarsi, but unlike manmatha and Rudra, he decided to remain celibate and thus left the path that Brahma wanted him to take and stuck to Narayana…like glue. So there is no doubt that he is the devarsi.

Teachings of Parasara in BPHS

Extracts from Brhat Parasara Hora Shastra

The translation of the word *parivritti* and *trayam* has been done differently by different authors to suit their purposes and in reality this is quiet encompassing. Just for good record, there is a drekkana chart which is called Parivritti Drekkana and is quite well known and accepted. You can check Tajik Nilakanti and my writings and those of the scholar Iranganti Rangacharya on this subject as well as that of Dr. B V. Raman.

The common understanding for parivritti is to “consider or cover the entire zodiac span of 360 degrees” based on its meanings as (1) “turning or a revolution” around the zodiac, (2) “return (into this world)” and (3) “surrounding , encompassing or covering” the zodiac. The word *trayam* means three or three-fold and to this there can be no dispute nor different opinions. Therefore, drekkana is the one-third part of a sign reckoned in such a way that it covers the entire zodiac of 360 degrees. There are four ways in which this can be done and are popularly called (1) Parashari drekkana (2) Jagannath drekkana (3) Somanath Drekkana and (4) Parivrittitraya drekkana, although from the exact writings of Parasara, it is quite evident that he has covered all these in his broad statement at sloka 7.


Sva is self, first sign or the same sign; panca means fifth and navama means ninth; it is evident that the first, fifth and ninth signs, in that particular order, are being advised from every sign. Krama means to step or move in a procedure. Therefore, the first, fifth and ninth signs from any sign are the three drekkana and based on this sloka 8 and the name Parasari drekkana has been given to the generally well known drekkana or decanate chart. For example, the three decanates measuring 10deg each for Leo would map to Leo, Sagittarius and Pisces respectively for the 1st (0 -10 deg) 2nd (10 deg – 20 deg) and 3rd (20 deg – 30 deg).

Next he says that Narada, Agastya, Durvasa (in that order) are the lords (poor translation of isa but will do for now) for chara (movable) and OTHERS. Should we interpret others as chara, sthira (fixed), dvisvabhava (dual or mutable) which is normally done? Then, Narada is the Rishi for movable signs, Agastya for fixed signs and Durvasa for mutable signs.

Logical derivation based on Birth and BPHS and dharma bhava

If we take the lineage or birth then this can easily fall in place – (1) Narada was the son of Brahma and hence movable signs are given to his care as Brahma indicates creation for which the movable signs have the energy or guna (2) Agastya, the ardent worshipper of Rudra/Shiva was the son of Rishi Pulastya and the fixed signs with low energy attributed to their fixity represents thes guna while (3) Durvasa was the son of Atri muni who is the giver of the middle syllable ‘U’ in AUM which represents the energy of Vishnu. Therefore this explanation fits the description.

However, we need to realize that the Rishi are actually the Pitris as they are the progenitors of all creation (and knowledge – Veda) and must have the pride of place in the ninth house to represent the Guru and father alike. Then when we say narada rules of the movable drekkana we refer to him as being in the ninth from the movable signs. The ninth from movable signs are the mutable (dual) signs which are having the energy of sustenance and therefore Narada is called Devarsi. By similar logic we can attribute the ninth from fixed signs (which are movable signs) to Agastya as he has a created whole universe of knowledge like Brahma. Similarly the ninth from mutable signs are the fixed signs and the anger of Durvasa matches this.

If we map ‘Devarsi to Vishnu, Brahmarsi to Brahma and Maharsi to Mahadeva or Shiva, then from the above paragraph, we can map Narada as Devarsi, Agastya as Brahmarsi and Durvasa as Mahrsi. That should explain in detail what I was teaching at the Atri-SJC class in Delhi.
(1) Devarsi – Narada –Mutable or dual signs [logic: being 9th from movable signs] (2) Brahmarsi –Agastya –Movable signs [logic: being 9th from fixed signs] (3) Maharsi –Durvasa –Fixed signs [logic: being 9th from mutable/dual signs]

The vexed questions
All this is fine and we should follow but then a stage comes when we ask questions like what does the word ‘krama’ fully mean? Is it just regular reckoning like that for Saturn or is it based on the reckoning of Narayana? Then we arrive at a dilemma where the ninth sign from the samapada and vimsapada are going to be different. Then for Narayana dasa which is based on padakrama order, the reckoning of results of houses should also follow a different order for samapada and vimsapada signs. For this we go back to the two words “AUM” and “UMA” which hold the key to the answer. Again, the word used by Parasara is ‘chara and others’ which for the intelligent should cover both the groups of samapada and vimsapada signs. Therefore Narayana dasa is a different level of Jyotish altogether and should be studied with at least some knowledge of the Upadesha Sutra. Add to this the complexity of the word ‘parivritti-traya’ and the various alternatives to get a great puzzle that would require serious research to resolve.

Let us just focus on the question at hand. Look at it from another perspective of guna and drishti which is an attribute of the signs. We already have the following mapping –
(1) Devarsi – Narada –Mutable or dual signs [logic: being 9th from movable signs] (2) Brahmarsi –Agastya –Movable signs [logic: being 9th from fixed signs] (3) Maharsi –Durvasa –Fixed signs [logic: being 9th from mutable/dual signs]

When we talk of Narayana dasa, we talk of sustenance of everything that is created by Him. In the material universe, Guna is understood from the viewpoint of energy as well.

(1) Satva can be simply understood as perfect balance between energy supply and demand and thus the body continues in perfect or balanced motion. Satva guna is attributed to mutable or gual signs
(2) Rajas guna is the desire and hence power to create and shows the use of surplus energy which is available with movable signs. Rajas guna is attributed to movable signs and will continue to keep working or doing till the energy finishes. Thus, Rajas ends in Tamas guna when the fuel supply finishes.
(3) The reverse is true for Tamas guna which has no power or energy to do anything and is seeking energy to get activated and achieve its goals. Tamas is attributed to the fixed signs which symbolise lack of motion and low energy.

Now rewrite the mapping based on gunas
(1) Devarsi – Narada –Mutable or dual signs –satva guna
(2) Brahmarsi –Agastya –Movable signs –rajas guna
(3) Maharsi –Durvasa –Fixed signs –tamas guna

The desire is indicated by RASI DRISHTI or the aspect of the signs.
(1) The dual/mutable signs aspect each other or satva guna is satisfied in itself, and satva converts only to another satva because of this drishti. [satva –> satva] (2) Movable signs aspect only fixed signs and cannot aspect any movable or mutable signs showing that rajas converts to tamas guna because of this drishti. [rajas –> tamas] (3) Fixed signs only aspect other movable signs and cannot aspect fixed or mutable signs showing that tamas converts to rajas but cannot convert ot satva because of this drishti. [tamas –>rajas]

Q1. Why are we taking drishti into account? Answer: Because it shows the knowledge, desire and action towards things/objectives.
Q2. Why are we considering Rasi drishti? Answer: Because it does not have Iccha shakti and instead has only kriya and gyana shakti. That is why it doesnot
And, in Narayana Dasa or in Drig dasa, this connection between drishti (knowledge, desire and action ability) and ninth house (Narayana/Vishnu) is clearly made and has a sound basis on the Rk Veda – tad Vishnu paramam padam, sadaa pasyanti suurayah. Diviivah chayur-aatatam.

The next step is to covert on the basis of the guna. Satva (Devarshi) remains the same and no conversion occurs. Rajas (Brahmarsi) is converted to Tamas (Maharsi) and vice-versa.
(1) Devarsi – Narada –Mutable or dual signs –satva guna –> satva guna –Mutable or dual signs–Narada [Rishi is not changing, dominant guna is not changing] (2) Brahmarsi –Agastya –Movable signs –rajas guna –> tamas guna – Fixed signs –Maharsi –Agastya [Rishi is not changing, dominant guna changes, and thus the sign association changes] (3) Maharsi –Durvasa –Fixed signs –tamas guna –> rajas guna – Movable signs – Brahmarsi –Durvasa [Rishi is not changing, dominant guna changes, and thus the sign association changes]

Now for the purpose of Narayana dasa, Drig dasa and every where we use rasi drishti, we should remember this changing of guna and accordingly in the Narayana dasha book, it is given as Agasthya related to Maharishi (sthira rashis) and Durvssa is related to Bhramarishi (chara rashis)

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There are two methods to draw a Trimsamsa (D30) Chart. We discuss the method of Parashara.

What is the Trimsamsa, and how to draw a Trimsamsa Chart?
Trimsamsa means the one-thirtieth portion of a sign measuring one degree. Unlike other divisions, the Sun and Moon are not the Lords of any trimsamsa and the Nodes (Rahu & Ketu) also do not owm any trimsamsa. Thus the remaining five of Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn own the trimsamsa. They represent the five elemental states of existence (see table 1).

Table 1: Five Elements

Element Planet State Tithi Days
Prithvi Mercury Earth/Solid state Bhadra Tithi: 2nd, 7th & 12th Wednesday
Jala Venus Water/ Liquid state Rikta Tithi: 4th, 9th & 14th Monday & Friday
Agni Mars Fire/Energy Nanda Tithi: 1st, 6th & 11th Tuesday, Sunday
Vayu Saturn Wind/ Gaseous State Poorna Tithi: 5th, 10th & 15th Saturday
Akash Jupiter Ether/ Vacuum Jaya Tithi: 3rd, 8th & 13th Thursday

Table 2: Trimsamsa D30

Degrees Odd Signs Deity Degrees Even Signs Deity
5 Aries Agni 50 Taurus Varuna
10 Aquarius Vayu 120 Virgo Kubera
18 Sagittarius Indra 200 Pisces Indra
25 Gemini Kubera 250 Capricorn Vayu
30 Libra Varuna 300 Scorpio Agni

The positions of the planets and the Lagna in the Rasi chart are used to determine the Trimsamsa occupied by them. For example, if Jupiter is in 26-07′ in Pisces, then since it is in an even sign, from Table 2, we see that it is in Scorpio (even sign ruled by Mars). In this manner, the trimsamsa of all the planets and Lagna is determined and the resultant chart is called the Trimsamsa or D-30 Chart.

The trimsamsa chart of the standard nativity is given below.

How to study the Trimsamsa Chart? Method-1

1. Treat this like any other chart. In spiritualism we are taught of a “SHADOW SELF” called PAPA_PURUSHA which is a reflection of our own self, but the darker side which includes all the negative things we have done for ages and many births. This is the trimsamsa..the shadowy world of our self. Hence, the Sun and Moon do not own any trimsamsa as they have light.
2. Second thing is to study this chart for all the bad things we have done for which we deserve to be punished or taught lessons. The 12th rules hospitals and is the 5th (Mantra) from the 8th (Diseases). Hence the 12th house shows the way to get out of diseases and other such bad karma. It is the future (5th) of the 8th house.
3. A Saturn placed in such a place is not good as it delays the recovery from diseases, makes the effect of the mantra nil due to mistakes or “NOT WORSHIPPING GANESHJI” before starting a mantra can render it useless unless Guru is very strong. In this manner study the houses with focus on the 8th house (ROGA: Diseases & RINA Debts) and the 6th house (SHAD RIPU: Six kinds of weaknesses). In this manner the houses should be studied.
4. The 9th house (Dharma) from the 8th house is the 4th house. Thus, happiness and laughter (ruled by the 4th house) are the best natural medicine to get out of the cycle of disease and debt. A clean heart is the key to happiness & laughter. Venus (fulfilment of desires) gives happiness & Mercury gives laughter. Moon is the natural significator for the 4th house and becomes the Controlling planet for good health and freedom from diseases. In this manner the planets should be studied.
5. The Arudha pada of the sixth house gives the body part that shall be afflicted due to the diseases.
6. Venus rules the Mritunjaya Mantra and the strength of Venus in this division is important for recovery from diseases. The Sun and the Moon represent the Atma (Soul) and the Mana (Mind) respectively. Affliction to the Sun will result in suffering, poverty and misery while affliction to the Moon will cause ill health and death. Since Mars and Venus rules the signs of exaltation of the Sun and Moon, they represent the Physical and Mental strength of the native to cope with distress, disease and other evils respectively.

Examine the trimsamsa of the chart above

The first, tenth and eighth houses and their lords should be examined for good longevity. Here, the Lagna lord is involved with a Parivartana Yoga with the ninth lord Mars showing the ability for quick recovery from diseases. The conjunction of saturn is a big handicap on the lagna lord as if saturn conjoins either of the lords of the lagna (Brahma), tenth (Vishnu) and eighth (Rudra), then the span of longevity contributed by it is reduced. Jupiter is not only the lagna lord, but also the tenth lord and its conjunction by Saturn is a handicap. The exaltation of the eighth lord Venus is a great blessing in the chart as it gives cures from all ailments during its periods.

Rahu and Ketu placed in the eighth house will surely give diseases during their periods and the antidote for this is the exaltation of Venus their dispositor. During Saturn dasa-Rahu Antardasa-Ketu Pratyantar dasa, the native developed a strange swelling in the left elbow (joint diseases are shown by Saturn) that had to be surgically removed after it threatened to become dangerous.

The badhakesh is the lord of the house of obstruction (Badhak means obstruction). For movable signs the eleventh house, for dual signs the seventh and for fixed signs the seventh is the Badhak house. Here the seventh house is Virgo which is empty while its lord Mercury is in the tenth house in Sagittarius in the badhak house from the Moon. Thus, during Jupiter dasa Mercury antardasa, the native suffered from a dogbite.

The lagna rising in trimsamsa is the same as the Lagna Pisces in the Rasi chart showing that most of the ill health will be related to childhood and that the health improves with age. This is also substantiated by the placement of the tenth lord in Lagna with the lagna lord in the Rasi Chart. In this manner and applying the “Paryaya Dasa” [recommended by Maharishi Jaimini for the Shastamsa (D-6) and D-30 is a higher harmonic division of D-6 as 30=2×12+(6)] the correct results can be divined.

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Primary Divisions

We must not forget that it was the Hindus who discovered what is known as the precession of the Equinoxes, and in their calculation such an occurrence takes place every 25,827 years. Our modern science, after labors of hundreds of years has simply proved them to be correct….Count Viscount Cheiro

1.1 Time and Space

Time and space are like endless rings without a beginning and without an end. The definition of the beginning of a linear time scale or the starting point of the Universe has been the vexed question of many a thinker and this thought leads the mind to a definition of God as being imperceptible. The great Vedic thinkers personified God as Kalapurusha[1] and harmonized these two concepts of time and space into the four-dimensional model of Bhachakra (geocentric zodiac). Normally the Bhachakra is represented as a two dimensional figure for easy reading on paper, but the other dimensions of a dynamic linear time and the vertical declination of the planets were also examined and noted. Thus, the first and foremost point to bear in mind is that every division of the zodiac has a similar or matching division of time. As we study each of the divisions, we will also examine the time measure represented by it and will get additional clues to interpret results and delineate the effect of time on the division.

1.2 Rasi & Nakshatra

The division of the zodiac into twelve signs and twenty seven (or twenty eight Nakshatra) is the primary division in the paradigm of Vedic Astrology. Every now and then a new planet is seen and the doubts arise in the minds of the learned on the continued validity of the twelve sign zodiac. To clear these doubts, it is necessary to understand the basis of this primary division called Rasi. The zodiac of 12 signs and 27 constellations was prepared by carefully observing the movement of the Sun and Moon in the geocentric model of the universe.

1.2.1   Rasi – twelve Sun signs.

The relative motion between the Sun & Moon shows that the Synodical Month (new moon to new moon or full moon to full moon) is 29D 12H 44M 3S = 29.53059D. Rounding off to the next higher integer we get 30 days during which, the average solar motion is 30 Degrees. Finally, dividing the Bhachakra of 360 degrees by 30, we get 12 signs, or the 12 sun signs as the Sun[2] gets over-lordship of all signs being their pater. The twelve signs are Mesha (Aries), Vrisabha (Taurus), Mithun (Gemini), Karkata (Cancer), Simha (Leo), Kanya (Virgo), Tula (Libra), Vrischika (Scorpio), Dhanus (Sagittarius), Makara (Capricorn), Kumbha (Aquarius) and Meena (Pisces).
Figure 4 : The Sun sign Zodiac

Figure 5 : Hora (Aho-Ratra)
This method of division of the Zodiac into two halves is based on the distance of the sun from the earth. This divides the zodiac along an imaginary line passing through the zero degrees of Leo and Zero degrees of Aquarius into two halves. Half or Hora is derived from the word Aho-Ratra[3] indicating the two-fold divisions of the day into equal halves of light and darkness. Thus, this division of the zodiac was into the two parts called Solar and Lunar halves[4] or Surya Hora and Chandra Hora respectively. The solar half or Surya Hora included the six signs in the zodiacal order from Leo to Capricorn and the lunar half or Chandra Hora included the six signs from Cancer to Aquarius in the reverse order. This division has nothing to do with Ayana. The Sun and Moon own adjoining signs (i.e. Leo & Cancer respectively) in their Hora’s while the five other planets in the order of Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn (based on their geographical distances from the Sun i.e. Mercury is closest and Saturn is the most distant) shall own the signs in their proximity to Leo (and Cancer) reckoned in the zodiacal (or reverse) order[5] (Figure -2)

1.2.3   Hora – (based on solstice)
The Rishi’s also observed the two solstices’ where the length of the day (i.e. daylight duration) was the longest and shortest respectively called the summer and winter solstice[6]. The Summer solstice is the longest day and marked the end of the hot summer season and beginning of the rainy season. So also the winter solstice marked the end of the long nights. Thus, the zodiac was divided into two halves along an imaginary line passing through the Zero Degrees of Cancer and Zero Degrees of Capricorn, which showed the position of the Sun at these two extreme points of longest day and longest night. This formed the two Ayana or halves of the zodiac comprising three seasons each. The specific terms used are Uttar-Ayana or Northern Goal and Dakshin-Ayana or Southern- Goal and refers to the ‘goal’ of the Sun as it seeks to reach the northernmost point of the zodiac (i.e. Zero degrees of Cancer) or southern-most point (i.e. zero degrees of Capricorn). This can also refer to the goal of seeking the northernmost latitude[7], which coincides with summer solstice, or the southernmost latitude[8], which coincides with winter solstice.
Figure 6 : Ayana

1.2.4   Kendra (Quadrant)

The beginning of the zodiac was fixed based on the position of the sun on equinoxes i.e. when the days and nights are equally long and this was at the zero degree of Aries and Libra. In this manner, the four crucial points of the zodiac were determined as zero degrees of Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn. The Rishi’s realized that there were actually two zodiac’s – one where the solar system could be considered as an independent system in itself and another in which the solar systems movement around another ellipse center called VISHNU-NABHI is also accounted for. These two zodiac systems are called Sayana (Tropical) and Nirayana (Sidereal) Bhachakra. The primary difference between the two being the motion of the solar system in the universe which is measured by the period of precession of the equinoxes – 25,800 years and when calculated from the point when the same is zero (i.e. sidereal and tropical zodiac coincide) is called Ayanamsa [9] . Now, the difference between the starting points of the two zodiac’s at any point of time is called Ayanamsa. In the concept of the Hindu calendar[10]  we realize that Varahamihira’s advocation of using the Suklanta Masa had a lot to do with the nomenclature of the Months on the basis of the normal Nakshatra position of the Full Moon and this determined the start of each lunar month (and not the Amanta Masa system as is in vogue in most of India today). In any case the star ‘Chitra’ was observed as the point of fixation and ‘Chitra Paksha’ referring to the opposite point from ‘Chitra [11]’ represents the beginning of the zodiac.

The basic point is that the zodiac was divided into four parts of ninety degrees each by the four points representing the beginning of Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn and that these four points defined the four goals of human existence as (a) Dharma – righteousness and adherence to natural and societal principles (b) Moksha –Spirituality and emancipation from the cycle of rebirth, (c) Kaama – existence of desires and their fulfillment or denial as the cause of rebirth and (d) Artha – wealth. The four parts, on the other hand, divided the life into four ashrams, which form the foundation of Hinduism. This is also the concept in ‘Chatuspada [12] Dharma’.

The Sankhya Shastra teaches extensively about the Pancha Tatwa or the five forms of existence of all bodies. These forms of existence are (1) Prithvi (Solid state), (2) Jala (Liquid state), (3) Vayu (Gaseous state), (4) Agni (Energy state) and (5) Akash (ethereal or vacuum state). Vacuum permeates the entire universe and hence, the Akash Tatwa is present throughout the Bhachakra. The other four Tatwa were found to be in a predominant form in Aries (Agni), Cancer (Jala), Libra (Vayu) andCapricorn (Prithvi).

1.2.5   Trikona (Trine)

In a similar manner, the Trikona (trine) should also be understood as being the division of time into three aspects of past, present and future. Using (a) Manu Smriti statement that ‘a day in the life of the Gods is a year in human life’ we arrive at the basic equation of 1 Deg (=day motion of Sun) representing 1 year in Human life, and (b) Parasara’s statement that the Param Ayus for human beings is 120 years, we arrive at the angle of 120 Degree representing the present life, next 120 deg representing the future and 120 degree representing the past.  The span of 120 degrees of the zodiac covers 9 Nakshatra and thus, a group of nine Nakshatra before Janma (birth) Nakshatra represents the past, the group of nine from Janma represents the present while the remaining group of 9 represents the future.

This three-fold division is very fundamental to Vedic Astrology and we have the three types of Chara (Movable), Sthira (Fixed) and Dwisbhava (Dual) signs. Since the three types are based on the original longevity equation of Parasara (120 Deg = Full life), this is used in the most basic methods to estimate longevity.

1.2.6   Ritu – The Six seasons.

The change of seasons formed the primary basis for the Hindu calendar where the year was divided into six seasons called Ritu. Rains were considered the blessings of the Gods and the rainy season was considered as that during which life came to this earth. This formed the principle behind determining the life giving portion of the zodiac as well as the concept of the coming down of the individual soul from the heavens above with the raindrops [13]. The distribution of the seasons in each Ayana, their extent in the zodiac and ruling planets are given in Table-1.  Furthermore, the Ritu should be understood only from the solar months [14] (i.e. Sun’s transit) and not the lunar months. Since the Sun was accepted as the cause of all seasons, it was natural to give the over lordship of the seasons to him.

Table 1 – Division of the seasons

Ayana Season Lord of Season Sun signs covered Lord
Winter Varsha Rain Moon Cancer Moon
Leo Sun
Sarad Fall Mercury Virgo Mercury
Libra Venus
Hemanta Winter Jupiter Scorpio Mars
Sagittarius Jupiter
Summer Sisira Cold Saturn Capricorn Saturn
Aquarius Saturn
Vasant Spring Venus Pisces Jupiter
Aries Mars
Grisma Summer Mars & Sun Taurus Venus
Gemini Mercury

1.2.7   Nakshatra – (Lunar Mansions)

Having divided the zodiac into 12 signs based on the Sun’s movement, it was necessary to also divide this into parts to study the effects of the movement of the Moon. Considered independently, the Moon takes 27D 7H 43M 11.5S to go around the earth. This is called the Sidereal month. Taking the integer 27 we get the 27 Nakshatra or Lunar Mansion  (each 130 20’ of arc). Each Nakshatra was identified with a star, (or star cluster) and derived its name from it. The 7-¾ hour shortfall in a sidereal lunar transit was made up by a short-span intercalary (hypothetical) Nakshatra called Abhijit. The span of Abhijit is determined proportionally as (7h 43m 11.5s/ 24 hrs) x 130 20’ = 40 17’ 20″. This span is from 2760 40’ to 2800 57’ 20″overlapping the 21st Nakshatra (Uttarasadha). This becomes the 28th Nakshatra, which is used in some Chakra like the Kala Chakra and the Sarvatobhadra Chakra etc.

Table 2 : Nakshatra – Lunar Mansion

Number Nakshatra Deity Planetary Lord-ship (Vimsottari) Pada3020’ each Extent in Rasi Rasi
1. Aswini Aswini Kumar Ketu 4 13020’ Aries (Mesh)
2. Bharani Yama Venus 4 16040’
3. Krittika Agni Sun 1 300
3 100 Taurus (Vrisabha)
4. Rohini Brahma Moon 4 23020’
5. Mrigasira Chandra Mars 2 300
2 6040’ Gemini (Mithun)
6. Ardra Rudra Rahu 4 200
7. Punarvasu Aditi Jupiter 3 300
1 3020’ Cancer (Karkata)
8. Pusya Brihaspati [15] Saturn 4 16040’
9. Aslesha Sarpadeva[16] Mercury 4 300
10. Makha Pitri[17] Ketu 4 13020’ Leo (Simha)
11. Poorva Phalguni Bhaga Venus 4 16040’
12. Uttar Phalguni Aryama Sun 1 300
3 100 Virgo (Kanya)
13. Hasta Savitur[18] Moon 4 23020’
14. Chitra Tvashta Mars 2 300
2 6040’ Libra (Tula)
15. Swati Vayu Rahu 4 200
16. Visakha Mitra Jupiter 3 300
1 3020’ Scorpio (Vrischika)
17. Anuradha Saturn 4 16040’
18. Jyestha Indra Mercury 4 300
19. Moola Nirriti Ketu 4 13020’ Sagittarius (Dhanus)
20. Poorva Ashada Jala[19] Venus 4 16040’
21. Uttar Ashada Viswadeva Sun 1 300
3 100 Capricorn (Makara)
22. Sravana Vishnu Moon 4 23020’
23. Dhanista Asta Vasava[20] Mars 2 300
2 6040’ Aquarius (Kumbha)
24. Satabhisaj Varuna Rahu 4 200
25. Poorva bhadrapada Ajaikapad Jupiter 3 300
1 3020’ Pisces (Meena)
26. Uttara bhadrapada Ahirbudhanya Saturn 4 16040’
27. Revati Pooshan Mercury 4 300

1.3  Divisions of a sign

Division refers to an orderly division of the 30 degrees of a sign into parts called Amsa. The charts constructed on the basis of the ownership of these divisions[21] are called Divisional Charts or simply D-Charts. The sign is divided into ‘N’ number of parts where ‘N’ refers to the Varga number. Each part is called an Amsa and maps into a specific sign of the D-N Chart. If any planet or Lagna is placed within an Amsa, then it is also in the mapped sign of the D-Chart.

To understand this, let us consider the chart of a person born on the 7th of August 1963. Some of the planetary positions are Lagna 140 Pisces, Jupiter 260 07’ Pisces, Moon 19057’ Aquarius and Saturn 26050’ Capricorn. The Rasi (D-1 Chart) will have Jupiter and Ascendant in the first house in Pisces, Moon in the 12th house in Aquarius and Saturn in the 11th house in Capricorn. Let us attempt to determine the Drekkana divisions and D-3 chart. Here ‘N’ = 3 and each sign of 300 longitude is divided into three parts of 100 each. Each of these divisions is called an ‘Amsa’ and more specifically a Drekkana or ‘Trine division’. The three Drekkana of all signs would be in the longitude range (1) 0-100, (2) 100-200 and (3) 200-300. The first Drekkana of a sign is mapped to itself, the second is mapped to the sign in the fifth from it and the third is mapped to the sign in the ninth from it.

Figure 7 : D-Chart construction
Thus, Lagna at 140 Pisces is in second Drekkana and is mapped into Cancer the fifth house from Pisces. Jupiter at 260 is in the third Drekkana of Pisces and this is Scorpio in the D-3 Chart. Moon is in the second Drekkana of Aquarius and is placed in Gemini in D-3 Chart. Saturn at 270 is in the third Drekkana of Capricorn and is mapped to the ninth house from Capricorn (i.e. Virgo) where it is placed in the D-3 Chart.

1.3.1   Nomenclature

The divisions of the zodiac and the divisional charts constructed on the basis of ownership of these divisions are named on various criteria. These include:

1.      The division number: This is the numer by which the sign is divided into parts. For example ‘Saptamsa’ composed from Sapta meaning seven and amsa meaning portion. Thus, this is the one-seventh division of a sign.
2.      Other reference numbers: For example, it is well known that there are 27 Nakshatra. Hence the name Nakshetramsa coined from Nakshatra and Amsa (portion) refers to the one – twenty seventh (1/27) division or the divisional chart prepared from this division occupied by the Lagna and nine planets.
3.      Usage and focus: Every divisional chart (or division) has a specific use and a clearly defined focus on a specific area of activity. For example, Siddhamsa is coined from Siddha referring to that body of knowledge which a person learns and achieves perfection in and Amsa means portion. So, Siddhamsa refers to the division/divisional chart where we study the learning process. This is the 24th division (D-24 Chart). This is also called the Bhamsa from the word ‘Bha’ (as in Bha-chakra which is the primary representation of the zodiac as composed of 27 Nakshatra.
4.      Multiple names: Divisions (D-charts) can have multiple names from either of the three aforementioned methods. For example the 16th division is called Shodasamsa [Shodas (sixteen) Amsa (portion)]. This is also called Kalamsa based on the 16 Kala’s in a 24-hour day.
5.      Rao’s Method: The nomenclature introduced by Dr.K.N.Rao refers to each divisional chart directly by its division number. For example, the Siddhamsa is simply called the D-24 Chart or just D-24 when the division in the Rasi chart is being referred to.

Table 3 : Nomenclature

Division Primary Name Other names
D-1 Chart Rasi Bhagana, Bha chakra
D-2 Chart Hora
D-3 Chart Drekkana
D-4 Chart Chaturthamsa Tureeyamsa
D-5 Chart Panchamamsa
D-6 Chart Shastamsa Kauluka
D-7 Chart Saptamsa
D-8 Chart Astamsa
D-9 Chart Navamsa Dharmamsa
D-10 Chart Dasamsa Swargamsa
D-11 Chart Rudramsa Labhamsa
D-12 Chart Dwadasamsa Suryamsa
D-13 to D-15 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-16 Chart Shodasamsa Kalamsa
D-17 to D-19 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-20 Chart Vimsamsa
D-21 to D-23 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-24 Chart Siddhamsa Chaturvimsamsa
D-25 to D-26 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-27 Chart Nakshatramsa Bhamsa, Saptavimsamsa
D-28 to D-29 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-30 Chart Trimsamsa
D-31 to D-39 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-40 Chart Khavedamsa Swavedamsa
D-41 to D-44 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-45 Chart Akshavedamsa
D-46 to D-59 Charts Not used in Vedic Astrology
D-60 Chart Shastyamsa
Some higher Divisional charts
D-72 Chart Asta-Navamsa
D-81 Chart Nav-Navamsa
D-108 Chart Astottaramsa Nav-Dwadasamsa, Dwadas-Navamsa, (are the two methods of chart construction),
D-144 Chart Dwadas-Dwadasamsa
D-150 Chart Nadiamsa Chandra-Kala Amsa
D-300 Chart Ardha-Nadiamsa

1.       Other systems: There are other totally different Varga Charts based on other criteria. Example – Astakavarga: The Varga charts constructed on the basis of the contribution of Rekha[22] and Bindu[23] by the eight factors (Lagna and seven planets from Sun to Saturn).

1.3.2   Technical terms

Like every other system, there are various technical terms used in the examination of Divisional charts. Getting accustomed to the verbiage helps in understanding and using the system.

1)      Varga: Division or Divisional Chart in general usage.

  1. Amsa means portion and generally refers to the division of a sign. It also refers to individual D-charts when used in conjunction with the reference to the division. Example: Navamsa – Nav (Nine) + Amsa (division) refers to the one-ninth portion of a sign and the D-9 Chart specifically.
  2. Yoga means union and refers to the association of two bodies, whether mobile planets/Lagna or static signs in any of the four methods of Sambandha[24]. Any planet that brings about an association between the Lagna, Hora Lagna and Ghatika Lagna by ownership, placement or aspect is termed a Yogada.
  3. Subhapati: Subha means benefic and specifically refers to the Moon, as it is the sustainer of this life. Subhapati is the dispositor of the Moon and its dignity in the various divisional charts is examined to determine the health and longevity of the native. If the Subhapati aspects or conjoins the Lagna or Atmakaraka, it is elevated to the position of a Kevala. In addition if it associates with the Hora Lagna (HL) or Ghatika Lagna (GL) it is further elevated to a Kevala Yogada and if both HL and GL are also associated with the Kevala, then it is a Kevala Mahayogada.
  4. Karya Rasi is the house, which is the center of focus of the activity related to a Divisional chart. A D-chart may have many important houses like a Dasamsa where the sixth house is examined for service related matters or the seventh house is examined for business, but the focus is the tenth house and for the Dasamsa, the tenth house is the Karya Rasi. The Lord of the Karya Rasi in the Rasi Chart should be well placed in the concerned divisional chart for the activity (Karya) to prosper.
  5. Karyesh is the significator of the Karya (activity) and will vary from one chart to another depending on the activity involved. For example, in the Dasamsa (profession) a person can have many Karyesh depending on the activities he is involved in. As an example let us consider President Bill Clinton. He is a politician and also a lawyer. The Karyesh for politics is the Sun (note – Moon is for Bureaucracy) and that for a legal profession is Jupiter. Depending on the placement and strength of these planets in the Dasamsa, the rise or fall or changes in career can be studied and predicted. The concept of Argala is vital to determine as to which of these Karyesh shall bloom or perish at any point of time as the dasa’s change.
  6. Karaka means significator and are classified into the three categories of Naisargika, Chara and Sthira karaka. Details about Karaka and other basic principles like Rasi & Graha drishti, Argala etc, can be learnt from any standard book.

1.4 Harmonics

Since the twelve sign division is the primary division, it follows that all sub-division of the sign will fall in a sequence that repeats after every twelve divisions. Thus, for example, the D-16 Chart (Shodasamsa or Kalamsa) will be the first harmonic (or second cycle) of the D-4 Chart (Chaturthamsa). This can be expressed mathematically as 16 = (12 x 1)+ (4); where 1 represents the first harmonic. Similarly, the D-40 (Khavedamsa) Chart is the third harmonic (or 4th cycle) of the D-4 Chart as 40 = (12 x 3) + (4).

Table 4 : Divisional Charts Cycle

Level of Consciousness Cycle/ Harmonic Divisional Charts range
Physical Primary (D-1 to D-12)
Conscious Secondary/ First harmonic (D-13 to D-24)
Sub-Conscious Tertiary/ Second harmonic (D-25 to D-36)
Super- Conscious Quaternary/ Third harmonic (D-37 to D-48)
Supra- Conscious Pentenary/ Fourth harmonic (D-49 to D-60)

The first cycle of divisional charts from Rasi chart (D-1) to Dwadasamsa (D-12) rules over the physical plane and covers such matters as physical body (D-1), material wealth (D-2), brothers & sisters (D-3), immovable properties (D-4), children (D-7), authority over others (D-5), spouse (D-9), work (D-10) and parents (D-12). The second cycle or first harmonic rules over the conscious plane. Technically it covers charts D-13 to D-24, but Parasara has restricted the scope to the three primary areas of mental activity namely Shodasamsa or Kalamsa (D-16) ruling over matters of general mental happiness, luxuries, vehicles etc; Vimsamsa (D-20) wherein spiritualism, occult studies etc are examined and Chaturvimsamsa (D-24) for all kinds of learning (which is actually considered a heritage from the society). The third cycle or second harmonic rules over the sub-conscious plane covering charts D-25 to D-36. Parasara advises us to focus on two charts in this group, namely, Nakshetramsa (D-27) for strengths & weaknesses and Trimsamsa (D-30) for all evils. For example if the Moon is exalted and placed in a quadrant in the D-27 Chart, we can infer that the native is mentally very strong. A weak Mercury in this chart can show speaking disorders or a weak speech. The fourth cycle or third harmonic rules over the super-conscious plane covering charts D-37 to D-48. However, the good & bad accruing to the destiny of the individual due to the Matrilineal karma (seen from Khavedamsa D-40 Chart [as 40 = (12×3) + 4] and that from the Patrilineal Karma (seen from the Akshavedamsa D-45 Chart [as 45 = (12×3) + 9] are considered important in the Shodasavarga scheme of Parasara. The fifth cycle or fourth harmonic rules the supra-conscious plane covering the charts D-49 to D-60. At this level, the heritage (equivalent of D-12) of the karma from past births is relevant and the Shastyamsa (D-60 Chart) is vital. Parasara gives the highest weightage to this chart in the Shodasavarga scheme. There are much higher planes of Consciousness and some other divisional charts like the Nava-Navamsa (D-81), Ashtorramsa or Navamsa-Dwadasamsa (D-108) and Dwadasamsa-Dwadasamsa (D-144) are used.

Om Tat Sat

[1] Kala- time, Purusha – God personified as Man. Hence, Kalapurusha is the personification of time as the ultimate representation of God.
[2] Hence the name Rasi where Ra refers to the Sun God.
[3] Aho means day and Ratra means night.
[4] Kalyan Verma – Saravali 3.09”
[5] Kalyan Verma – Saravali 3.10
[6] Note that the term summer and winter refers to the northern hemisphere and is actually reversed in the southern hemisphere. The Summer solstice marks the end of summer i.e. when the Sun reaches its maximum northern latitude, whereas the winter solstice marks the end of winter when the Sun reaches its maximum southern latitude.
[7] Tropic of Cancer at 230 27’ N Latitude.
[8] Tropic of Capricorn at 230 27’ S Latitude.
[9] Different average rates of precession have been given for Ayanamsa, but the fact remains that Surya Siddhanta has been very close to the truth in using 24000 years!. The average rate is 360 Degrees divided by 25,800 years = 50.232558 seconds per year. Note also that the word is composed of ‘Ayana’ + ‘Amsa’ or literally, portion of the Ayana.
[10] Refer appendix-1 for details.
[11] Here we are referring to the Yogatara of Chitra.
[12] Chatuspada literally means four feet and also refers to the sign Sagittarius which is the ninth house representing ones fortune or Bhagya. The four feet of Dharma are defined as the duty towards (a) Universe/Nation (b) Society (c) Family and (d) self in that decreasing order of importance. It is noteworthy that Parasara uses the term ‘Bhagya’ while referring to the Chaturthamsa’s results.
[13] The Brhadaranyaka Upanishad explains the Karma theory with reference to the theory of Transmigration of the soul (samsara). The pious and good souls who have lived a dharmic life depart for the abode of the forefathers and other such loka. After a period of temporary bliss, they move on to emptiness via the Moon. From emptiness, they descend to the earth with the rain and enter the food that is consumed by the prospective father. From the food they become spermatozoa and are offered to the prospective mother in the altar of fire (copulation). Then the birth occurs. The Upanishad adds that the unrighteous are incarnated as birds, insects, animals or plants on the basis of the Karma of the past lives. It is generally taught that conduct and adherence to the moral code determined these changes. Thus good karma would promise an exalted future while bad karma will tend to degrade the soul in the lines of ‘ as you sow so will you reap’.  This doctrine of Karma (literally “action”) provides a very satisfactory explanation for the various social inequalities that exist as well as the troubles or grief that one faces as it is the result of one’s own acts or misdeeds in the past. These Karma are divided into two categories called Sanchita and Prarabdha. The results of Sanchita Karma will be exhausted in the various heavens and hells after death whereas only experiencing them can lessen the results of Prarabdha Karma. Thus, it is this Prarabdha Karma, which is the cause of rebirth.
[14] indicated by Mukunda Daivagyna in Nasta Jataka
[15] Jupiter
[16] Snakes ruled by Rahu
[17] Pitri refers to the forefathers and when the Sun is in this place, in the Krishna Paksha (called Pitri Paksha), the devout Hindu worships the manes and forefathers.
[18] Others – Vishwakarma, Aditya etc.
[19] Water personified as the protector
[20] Vasudeva
[21] The ownership of individual divisions & signs by planets has been mentioned in traditional literature:
Trans: Mars, Venus, Merc, Moon, Sun, Merc, Ven, Mars, Jup, Saturn, Saturn & Jupiter are the lords of the 12 Rasi’s reckoned from Aries. These planets (in the said order also) lord the Amsa’s (Divisions). Vyankatesh Sharma – Sarvartha Chintamani (Sloka 1.06)
Kalyan Verma (Saravali Sloka 3.11)
[22] Rekha lit. vertical line
[23] Bindu lit. Dots. Thus, Rekha and Bindu refer to marks and dots contributed by the individual planets (and Lagna).
[24] Two planets can associate by (a) conjunction (b) mutual aspect (c) exchange of signs or constellations, or (d) aspect/placement in each others signs.



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